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Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry

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ISBN: 9783039287321 / 9783039287338 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-733-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The chemical industry is essential in the daily humn life of modern society; despite the misconception about the real need for chemical production, everyone enjoys the benefit of the chemical progress. However, the chemical industry generates a large variety of products, including (i) basic chemicals, e.g., polymers, petrochemicals, and basic inorganics; (ii) specialty chemicals for crop protection, paints, inks, colorants, textiles, paper, and engineering; and (iii) consumer chemicals, including detergents, soaps, etc. For these reasons, chemists in both acdemia and industry are challenged with developing green and sustainable chemical production towrad the full-recycling of feedstocks and waste. Aiming to improve the intensification of the process, chemists have established chemical reactions based on catalysis, as well as alternative technologies, such as continuous flow. The aim of this book is to cover promising recent research and novel trends in the field of novel catalytic reactions (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic, as well as their combinations) in continuous flow conditions. A collection of recent contribution for conversion of starting material originated from petroleum resources or biomass into highly-added value chemicals are reported.

Entropy in Dynamic Systems

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ISBN: 9783039216161 9783039216178 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-617-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In order to measure and quantify the complex behavior of real-world systems, either novel mathematical approaches or modifications of classical ones are required to precisely predict, monitor, and control complicated chaotic and stochastic processes. Though the term of entropy comes from Greek and emphasizes its analogy to energy, today, it has wandered to different branches of pure and applied sciences and is understood in a rather rough way, with emphasis placed on the transition from regular to chaotic states, stochastic and deterministic disorder, and uniform and non-uniform distribution or decay of diversity. This collection of papers addresses the notion of entropy in a very broad sense. The presented manuscripts follow from different branches of mathematical/physical sciences, natural/social sciences, and engineering-oriented sciences with emphasis placed on the complexity of dynamical systems. Topics like timing chaos and spatiotemporal chaos, bifurcation, synchronization and anti-synchronization, stability, lumped mass and continuous mechanical systems modeling, novel nonlinear phenomena, and resonances are discussed.

Organophosphorus Chemistry 2018

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ISBN: 9783039282364 9783039282371 Year: Pages: 601 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-237-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Organophosphorus chemistry is an important discipline within organic chemistry. Phosphorus compounds, such as phosphines, trialkyl phosphites, phosphine oxides (chalcogenides), phosphonates, phosphinates and >P(O)H species, etc., may be important starting materials or intermediates in syntheses. Let us mention the Wittig reaction and the related transformations, the Arbuzov- and the Pudovik reactions, the Kabachnik–Fields condensation, the Hirao reaction, the Mitsunobu reaction, etc. Other reactions, e.g., homogeneous catalytic transformations or C-C coupling reactions involve P-ligands in transition metal (Pt, Pd, etc.) complex catalysts. The synthesis of chiral organophosphorus compounds means a continuous challenge. Methods have been elaborated for the resolution of tertiary phosphine oxides and for stereoselective organophosphorus transformations. P-heterocyclic compounds, including aromatic and bridged derivatives, P-functionalized macrocycles, dendrimers and low coordinated P-fragments, are also of interest. An important segment of organophosphorus chemistry is the pool of biologically-active compounds that are searched and used as drugs, or as plant-protecting agents. The natural analogue of P-compounds may also be mentioned. Many new phosphine oxides, phosphinates, phosphonates and phosphoric esters have been described, which may find application on a broad scale. Phase transfer catalysis, ionic liquids and detergents also have connections to phosphorus chemistry. Green chemical aspects of organophosphorus chemistry (e.g., microwave-assisted syntheses, solvent-free accomplishments, optimizations, and atom-efficient syntheses) represent a dynamically developing field. Last, but not least, theoretical approaches and computational chemistry are also a strong sub-discipline within organophosphorus chemistry.

Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications

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ISBN: 9783039215645 9783039215652 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-565-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Building on advances in miniaturization and soft matter, surface tension effects are a major key to the development of soft/fluidic microrobotics. Benefiting from scaling laws, surface tension and capillary effects can enable sensing, actuation, adhesion, confinement, compliance, and other structural and functional properties necessary in micro- and nanosystems. Various applications are under development: microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, soft gripping and manipulation of particles, colloidal and interfacial assemblies, fluidic/droplet mechatronics. The capillary action is ubiquitous in drops, bubbles and menisci, opening a broad spectrum of technological solutions and scientific investigations. Identified grand challenges to the establishment of fluidic microrobotics include mastering the dynamics of capillary effects, controlling the hysteresis arising from wetting and evaporation, improving the dispensing and handling of tiny droplets, and developing a mechatronic approach for the control and programming of surface tension effects. In this Special Issue of Micromachines, we invite contributions covering all aspects of microscale engineering relying on surface tension. Particularly, we welcome contributions on fundamentals or applications related to:Drop-botics: fluidic or surface tension-based micro/nanorobotics: capillary manipulation, gripping, and actuation, sensing, folding, propulsion and bio-inspired solutions; Control of surface tension effects: surface tension gradients, active surfactants, thermocapillarity, electrowetting, elastocapillarity; Handling of droplets, bubbles and liquid bridges: dispensing, confinement, displacement, stretching, rupture, evaporation; Capillary forces: modelling, measurement, simulation; Interfacial engineering: smart liquids, surface treatments; Interfacial fluidic and capillary assembly of colloids and devices; Biological applications of surface tension, including lab-on-chip and organ-on-chip systems. We expect novel as well as review contributions on all aspects of surface tension-based micro/nanoengineering. In line with Micromachines' policy, we also invite research proposals that introduce ideas for new applications, devices, or technologies.

Keywords

mist capillary self-alignment --- laser die transfer --- hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces --- microasssembly --- droplet transport --- microfluidics --- vibrations --- contact line oscillation --- asymmetric surfaces --- anisotropic ratchet conveyor --- surface tension --- capillary --- bearing --- wetting --- computational fluid dynamics --- droplet manipulation --- lab-on-a-chip --- microfluidics --- non-invasive control --- photochemical reaction --- photoresponsible surfactant --- surface tension --- two-phase flow --- wettability --- electrowetting --- actuation --- capillary pressure --- lab-on-a-chip --- Nasturtium leaf --- smart superhydrophobic surface --- hot drop --- condensation --- microtexture melting --- self-lubricating slippery surface --- wettability gradient --- electrosurgical scalpels --- anti-sticking --- soft tissue --- continuous-flow reactor --- mixing --- solutal Marangoni effect --- relaxation oscillations --- super-hydrophobic --- durable --- adhesion --- corrosive resistance --- droplet --- vibrations --- transport --- microfluidics --- self-cleaning surface --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- superomniphobic --- microfluidics --- electrodynamic screen --- gecko setae --- micropipette-technique --- air-water surface --- oil-water interface --- soluble surfactant --- insoluble lipids --- “black lipid films” --- “droplet-interface-bilayers” --- equilibrium --- dynamic --- adsorption --- gas-microbubbles --- oil-microdroplets --- lung-surfactants --- nanoprecipitation --- microfluidics --- capillary gripper --- pick and place --- micromanufacturing --- two-photon polymerization --- stereolithography --- polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication --- rigid gas permeable contact lenses --- wettability --- hydrophilic --- hydrophobic --- 355 nm UV laser --- surface treatment --- microstructure --- contact angle --- droplets --- liquid bridge --- microfabrication --- micromanipulation --- pick-and-place --- soft robotics --- surface tension --- wetting

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