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Emergence of infectious diseases

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ISBN: 9782759227730 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2773-0 Language: English
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:05
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From SARS to avian influenza, Ebola virus and MERS-CoV, infectious diseases have received increasing attention in recent decades from scientists, risk managers, the media and the general public. What explains the constant emergence of infectious diseases? What are the related challenges? In five chapters, experts from different scientific fields analyse the ecological, social, institutional and political dynamics associated with emerging infectious diseases. This book discusses how the concepts, scientific results and action plans of international or governmental organizations are constructed and coordinated. In clear straightforward language, this book explores the continuities and discontinuities that occur with emerging infectious diseases, both in terms of collective action and in our relationship to the biological world.

Groundwater Contamination and Remediation

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ISBN: 9783038974291 9783038974307 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-430-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-07 09:01:53
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This Special Issue of Water brings together 10 studies on groundwater contamination and remediation. Common themes include practical techniques for plume identification and delineation, the central role of subsurface processes, the pervasiveness of non-Fickian transport, and the importance of bacterial communities in the broader context of biogeochemistry.

Parasites et parasitoses des poissons

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9782759222230 Year: DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2223-0 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:03
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This richly-illustrated work offers a representative panorama of parasitic agents encountered in fish. Based on the new phylogenetic classification concepts, it emphasises the biological properties, epidemiology and clinical effects of groups of organisms in question, in the light of cognitive advances made possible by the new biology tools. It is intended for a wide audience, from the world of aquaculture to animal health and teaching as well as to researchers.

LC-MS/MS Method for Mycotoxin Analysis

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ISBN: 9783038426066 9783038426073 Year: Pages: VIII, 186 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:28:33
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some species of filamentous fungi belonging to Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria genera. The biochemical significance of mycotoxins in fungal metabolism has not always been fully clarified; however, the main concern for mycotoxins is driven by the deleterious effects they can exert on human and animal health. Structurally, the mycotoxins currently known belong to heterogeneous chemical classes, therefore the toxic effects they can induce are highly diverse (e.g., cancerogenic and immunosuppressive effects). The main route of human exposure to mycotoxins is by intake of contaminated food, either directly from contaminated agricultural products, or indirectly from residues and metabolites present in foods of animal origin. Immunochemical methods are generally used for the fast screening of mycotoxin presence; however, for confirmation purposes, analytical methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) are preferred, especially when coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which allows the determination of multiclass mycotoxins in a single analysis. Moreover, the technical innovations available in LC-MS/MS instrumentation are prompting its application to the monitoring of contaminants in food and feed. The aim of this paper collection, constituted by ten research articles and one review, is to provide the reader with an overview on the novelties and capabilities in LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin methods, also including the investigation of emerging and modified mycotoxins.

Management of Fusarium Species and their Mycotoxins in Cereal Food and Feed

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452941 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-294-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Health and safety of food and feed are the most important criteria for their quality. The quality of feed is in turn important for animal health, the environment and for the safety of food from animal origin. Fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus are widespread in crops causing plant diseases and producing toxic metabolites. Fusarium species can colonize plants during their growth on the field and cause serious damage in terms of yield and quality of harvested grains. One of the most important fungal diseases of wheat and other cereals in the world is Fusarium head blight caused by the fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and others. In addition, these fungi produce mycotoxins, contaminating food and feed. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins include trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins, primarily because of their prevalence, but also because of the toxic effect to humans and animals. However, these fungi produce also other mycotoxins such as moniliformin, beauvericin, enniantin or fusarins. Food and feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins at various stages in the production chain resulting in serious problems with health, safety and economic losses. It is estimated that 25% of the crop in the world each year are contaminated with these metabolites, the problem affects both industrialized countries and developing countries. The aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Microbiology is to publish state of the art research about occurrence and genomics of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in the whole food and feed chain starting from the crops as well as implications for health and economic aspects. This research topic highlights the current knowledge on the plant diseases caused by Fusarium fungi as well as all aspects of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of crops, food and feed, taking into account decontamination methods.

Freshwater Microplastics: Emerging Environmental Contaminants?

Authors: ---
Book Series: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ISSN: 1867-979X ISBN: 9783319616148 9783319616155 Year: Pages: 303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61615-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-28 17:33:05
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This volume focuses on microscopic plastic debris, also referred to as microplastics, which have been detected in aquatic environments around the globe and have accordingly raised serious concerns. The book explores whether microplastics represent emerging contaminants in freshwater systems, an area that remains underrepresented to date.Given the complexity of the issue, the book covers the current state-of-research on microplastics in rivers and lakes, including analytical aspects, environmental concentrations and sources, modelling approaches, interactions with biota, and ecological implications. To provide a broader perspective, the book also discusses lessons learned from nanomaterials and the implications of plastic debris for regulation, politics, economy, and society. In a research field that is rapidly evolving, it offers a solid overview for environmental chemists, engineers, and toxicologists, as well as water managers and policy-makers.

Trente années d'observation des micro-algues et des toxines d'algues sur le littoral

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782759229413 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2941-3 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:07
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Rephy and Rephytox are coastal monitoring networks created by Ifremer. Their purpose is to observe the phytoplankton and associate hydrological parameters and to detect the algal toxins accumulating in shellfish. This work describes these networks before providing a global vision of data acquired during the last three decades. It shows the importance of series of environmental data acquired in the long term.rticulier aux scientifiques travaillant sur les écosystèmes littoraux, maisaussi à tout public intéressé par ces problématiques.

Pesticides

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759223442 9782759223459 9782759223435 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2344-2 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:33
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Pesticides are today the subject of considerable environmental issues. This work presents the outcome of fifteen years of research financed by the French Ministry of Ecology on the reduction in environmental risks from using pesticides. It emphasises especially the transfer of results to support public decisions.&#xD;

Nutrition and Celiac Disease

ISBN: 9783906980638 9783906980645 Year: Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:28:32
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During its 2.5 million years of evolution, the human species has evolved through major dramatic changes, mainly dictated by natural elements and, most importantly, by food availability. The diet of hunters and gatherers, hominids, was mainly based on fruit, vegetables, tubers, and occasionally meat and fish. Then, approximately 10,000 years ago, a drastic change in life style occurred, shifting from nomadic to settlers with domestication of animals and crops. A consequence of this change was the advent of wheat and other grains containing gluten-related proteins in human diet. This revolutionary transformation occurred at the Fertile Crescent, the modern-day Iraq, and spread from South to North and East to West at a speed of approximately 1 km/year. Ever since, the distribution of food goods became more and more uneven with wealthy countries getting more than necessary, while poor countries struggle with malnutrition and consequently this increased mortality. Unfortunately, the industrial revolution, rather than closing the gap, created even more inequalities that still exist today, leading to very different but equally worrisome pathologies, namely obesity in industrialized countries and famine in developing countries. [...]

Le mercure en Amazonie : Rôle de l’homme et de l’environnement, risques sanitaires

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782709917698 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.2519 Language: French
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Science (General) --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-09 10:17:46
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Cet ouvrage est le fruit de l’une des premières « expertises collégiales » coordonnées par l’Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD). Il fait le bilan des connaissances sur la présence, préoccupante, du mercure en Amazonie, sur ses effets sur l’environnement et la santé. Il se conclut par un certain nombre de recommandations opérationnelles. Il existe deux modes spécifiques de contamination humaine par le mercure : l’exposition des travailleurs de l’or (orpailleurs ou raffineurs) aux vapeurs de mercure dégagées lors des opérations d’enrichissement du minerai aurifère et de purification des lingots ; l’exposition de la population à un dérivé du mercure, le méthylmercure, principalement par la consommation de poissons eux-mêmes contaminés. Le premier mode, direct, de contamination peut entraîner des troubles de la santé du fait d’expositions prolongées et répétées. Ceux-ci concernent les voies respiratoires, le système gastro-intestinal et le système nerveux central, ce dernier pouvant être l’objet d’altérations irréversibles. Le caractère souvent clandestin et précaire des activités d’orpaillage ne favorise pas l’usage de techniques qui éviteraient ou du moins réduiraient cette contamination. La seconde forme d’exposition est beaucoup plus difficile encore à maîtriser. La méthylation du mercure, issu de l’orpaillage mais aussi contenu dans les sols à l’état « naturel », relève d’activités bactériennes dans des milieux aquatiques privés d’oxygène et riches en matière organique. L’exportation du mercure est facilitée par la déforestation – les sols dénudés favorisent sa libération – et par l’aptitude de ce métal à se complexer aux fines suspensions argilo-organiques véhiculées par les eaux. La contamination des poissons est l’étape suivante de la chaîne de transfert vers l’homme : comme, pour beaucoup de populations amazoniennes, leur consommation représente la source essentielle de protéines, elle constitue un agent d’exposition quasi quotidienne au méthylmercure dans l’ensemble de l’Amazonie et non dans les seules régions d’orpaillage. Cette imprégnation continue entraîne essentiellement l’apparition, tant chez l’adulte que chez l’enfant, d’atteintes neurologiques sévères, plus graves encore chez le fœtus au moment de la formation des organes. À partir de ces constats, un certain nombre de recommandations sont avancées : la mise en place d’un observatoire amazonien de surveillance, la création d’une structure d’encadrement de l’orpaillage, l’usage généralisé d’équipements de protection contre les vapeurs de mercure, diverses mesures techniques destinées à réduire l’impact du mercure dans l’environnement, une meilleure diffusion de l’information de base sur les risques encourus, l’adoption d’habitudes alimentaires prévenant l’exposition régulière au méthylmercure, une amélioration des suivis sanitaires.

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