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Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity

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ISBN: 9783038970033 9783038420040 Year: Pages: X, 202 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 14:22:39
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Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) have been collected and exchanged for centuries. The rapid development of novel tools for genetic and phenotypic analysis is changing the way we can uncover diversity and exploit its value in modern agriculture. The integration of novel analytical tools is crucial for translating research into much-needed, more efficient management and use of PGRFA.This Special Issue provides an overview of recent topics on plant genetics and biotechnology in biodiversity. The proposed reviews and research papers present current trends and examples of genetic resources’ description, conservation, management, and exploitation, highlighting that new approaches and methodogies can increase our understanding and efficient use of PGRFA to address the agricultural challenges that lie ahead.

Genetics and Genomics of Forest Trees

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ISBN: 9783038972983 9783038972990 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-299-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 10:42:07
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Forest tree genetics and genomics are advancing at an accelerated rate, thanks to recent developments in high-throughput, next-generation sequencing capabilities, and novel biostatistical tools. Population and landscape genetics and genomics have seen the rise of new approaches implemented in large-scale studies that employ the use of genome-wide sampling. Such studies have started to discern the dynamics of neutral and adaptive variation in nature and the processes that underlie spatially explicit patterns of genetic and genomic variation in nature. The continuous development of genetic maps in forest trees and the expansion of QTL and association mapping approaches contribute to the unravelling of the genotype-phenotype relationship and lead to marker-assisted and genome-wide selection. However, major challenges lie ahead. Recent literature suggests that species demography and genetic diversity have been affected both by climatic oscillations and anthropogenically induced stresses in a way calls into question the possibility of future adaptation. Moreover, the pace of contemporary environmental change presents a great challenge to forest tree populations and their ability to adapt, taking into consideration their life history characteristics. Several questions emerge that include, but are not limited to, the interpretation of forest tree genome surveillance and their structural/functional properties, the adaptive and neutral processes that have shaped forest tree genomes, the analysis of phenotypic traits relevant to adaptation (especially adaptation under contemporary climate change), the link between epigenetics/epigenomics and phenotype/genotype, and the use of genetics/genomics as well as genetic monitoring to advance conservation priorities.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039280728 9783039280735 Year: Pages: 375 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-073-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic and diverse multigene locus in all jawed vertebrate species that has an integral role in adaptive/innate immune systems, transplantation, and infectious and autoimmune diseases. The MHC supra-locus in mammalian vertebrates is usually partitioned into three distinct regions, known as classes I, II, and III, which, to varying extents, can be found conserved in nonmammalian jawed vertebrates, such as bony fish, amphibians, and bird lineages. The MHC gene region is characterized particularly by the expression of class I and class II glycoproteins that bind peptides derived from intracellular or extracellular antigens to circulating T-cells. While this expressed antigenic specificity remains the predominant interest with respect to MHC function and polymorphism in a population, a broader concept has emerged that examines the MHC as a multifunctional polymorphic controller that facilitates and regulates genome diversity with a much greater array of functions and effects than just MHC-restricted antigen recognition. This volume of 19 reprints presented by various experts and collected from the Special Issue of Cells on “MHC in Health and Disease” covers a broad range of topics on the genomic diversity of the MHC regulatory system in various vertebrate species, including MHC class I, II, and III genes; innate and adaptive immunity; neurology; transplantation; haplotypes; infectious and autoimmune diseases; fecundity; conservation; allelic lineages; and evolution. Taken together, these articles demonstrate the immense complexity and diversity of the MHC structure and function within and between different vertebrate species.

Keywords

MHC-I- and MHC-II-dependent inter-individual recognition --- MHC-II-associated sperm-egg recognition --- MHC-I-based mother-fetus recognition --- giant panda --- long-fragment super haplotype --- MHC --- genetic drift --- haplotype --- crested ibis --- founder effect --- bottleneck --- conservation genetics --- selection --- fish --- MHC --- polymorphism --- disease resistance --- quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies --- evolution --- HCP5 --- lncRNA --- MHC --- HLA --- human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) --- cancer --- autoimmune diseases --- competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) --- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- human papillomavirus (HPV) --- astrogliosis --- PNS/CNS interface --- microglial reaction --- synaptic covering --- ?2m knockout mice --- HLA-B27 --- viral peptides --- computational analysis --- ankylosing spondylitis --- KIR --- KIR–HLA pairs --- ethnic populations in China --- molecular dynamics simulation --- major histocompatibility complex --- antigen --- T-cell receptor --- domain movements --- autoimmunity --- risk genes --- expression --- regulation --- swine leukocyte antigen --- reproductive performance --- production trait --- haplotype --- micro-mini-pigs --- disease association --- haplotype --- HLA polymorphism --- major histocompatibility complex (MHC) --- pedigree --- phase --- protocol --- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) --- T1DGC --- type 1 diabetes (T1D) --- BK virus --- polyomavirus --- nephropathy --- human leukocyte antigen-E --- kidney transplantation --- MHC --- ancestral haplotype --- autoimmune disease --- cynomolgus macaque --- Macaca fascicularis --- MHC polymorphism --- experimental medicine --- nonhuman primate models --- DXO --- DOM3Z --- NELF-E --- RD --- SKIV2L --- SKI2W --- STK19 --- RP1 --- NSDK --- RLR --- miR1236 --- SVA --- RNA quality control --- 5??3? RNA decay --- 3??5? mRNA turnover --- antiviral immunity --- interferon ? --- promoter-proximal transcriptional pause --- exosomes --- nuclear kinase --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- Ski complex --- trichohepatoenteric syndrome --- melanoma --- major histocompatibility complex --- MHC --- evolution --- nonclassical --- fish --- MHC genes --- birds --- disease resistance --- orthology --- life history --- gene duplication --- long-read sequencing --- high-throughput sequencing --- concerted evolution --- ecology --- MHC --- major histocompatibility complex --- Old World camels --- camels --- dromedary --- Bactrian camel --- SNP --- n/a

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2020 (1)

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