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Chromatisch konfokale Triangulation - Hochgeschwindigkeits 3D-Sensorik auf Basis der Wellenlängenschätzung mit optimierten Filtern

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Automatische Sichtprüfung und Bildverarbeitung ISSN: 18665934 ISBN: 9783731506461 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: XI, 147 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000066977 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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A chromatic confocal 3D sensor is proposed. In contrast to the state of the art, which typically uses spectrometers to measure the wavelength, only a few camera channels are used. Each channel has an unique spectral sensitivity ant the optimization of the sensitivity is the main part of the book. Interference filters are optimized for the technical realization.

Recent CMV Research

ISBN: 9783906980539 9783906980546 Year: Pages: 528 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:33:22
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I am very pleased with this Viruses Special Issue. Of particular interest to families and caregivers affected by CMV diseases are several papers: addressing prevention of CMV infection of trophoblast cells (Zydek et al., 2014), CMV latency (Sinclair and Reeves, 2013), as well as of CMV lung infections in non-HIV infected children (Restrepo-Gualteros et al., 2014). Our ability to enhance immune responses for controlling CMV infection (Hanley and Bollard, 2014) and new strategies for CMV vaccine development guided by non-human primate studies (Deere and Barry, 2014) are discussed in two excellent reviews. Several articles address the CMV manipulation of the immune system, both innate and adaptive immune responses (Stevenson et al., 2014, Fink et al, 2013, 2014, Raghavan et al., 2014) and of DNA damage responses (E and Kowalik, 2014; Kulkarni and Fortunato, 2014). [...]

Optical MEMS

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ISBN: 9783039213030 9783039213047 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-304-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), or optical microsystems are devices or systems that interact with light through actuation or sensing at a micro- or millimeter scale. Optical MEMS have had enormous commercial success in projectors, displays, and fiberoptic communications. The best-known example is Texas Instruments’ digital micromirror devices (DMDs). The development of optical MEMS was impeded seriously by the Telecom Bubble in 2000. Fortunately, DMDs grew their market size even in that economy downturn. Meanwhile, in the last one and half decade, the optical MEMS market has been slowly but steadily recovering. During this time, the major technological change was the shift of thin-film polysilicon microstructures to single-crystal–silicon microsructures. Especially in the last few years, cloud data centers are demanding large-port optical cross connects (OXCs) and autonomous driving looks for miniature LiDAR, and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) demands tiny optical scanners. This is a new wave of opportunities for optical MEMS. Furthermore, several research institutes around the world have been developing MOEMS devices for extreme applications (very fine tailoring of light beam in terms of phase, intensity, or wavelength) and/or extreme environments (vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) for many years. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) novel design, fabrication, control, and modeling of optical MEMS devices based on all kinds of actuation/sensing mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying optical MEMS devices of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, biology, medicine, agriculture, physics, astronomy, space, or defense.

Keywords

scanning micromirror --- electromagnetic actuator --- angle sensor --- flame retardant 4 (FR4) --- variable optical attenuator (VOA) --- wavelength dependent loss (WDL) --- polarization dependent loss (PDL) --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- tunable fiber laser --- echelle grating --- DMD chip --- MEMS scanning micromirror --- fringe projection --- laser stripe scanning --- quality map --- large reflection variations --- 3D measurement --- laser stripe width --- vibration noise --- MLSSP --- MEMS scanning mirror --- wavefront sensing --- digital micromirror device --- ocular aberrations --- dual-mode liquid-crystal (LC) device --- infrared Fabry–Perot (FP) filtering --- LC micro-lenses controlled electrically --- spectrometer --- infrared --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) --- stray light --- programmable spectral filter --- digital micromirror device --- optical switch --- microscanner --- input shaping --- open-loop control --- quasistatic actuation --- residual oscillation --- usable scan range --- higher-order modes --- resonant MEMS scanner --- electrostatic --- parametric resonance --- NIR fluorescence --- intraoperative microscope --- 2D Lissajous --- fluorescence confocal --- metasurface --- metalens --- field of view (FOV) --- achromatic --- Huygens’ metalens --- bio-optical imaging --- optical coherence tomography --- confocal --- two-photon --- spectrometer --- MEMS mirror --- electrothermal bimorph --- Cu/W bimorph --- electrothermal actuation --- reliability --- n/a

MicroRNA as Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039212491 9783039212507 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-250-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the first microRNA. The size of the microRNome and complexity of animal body plans and organ systems suggests a role for microRNAs in cell fate determination and differentiation. More than 2000 sequences have been proposed to represent unique microRNA genes in humans, with an increasing number of mechanistic roles identified in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. Thus, dysregulation of a few key microRNAs can have a profound global effect on the gene expression and molecular programs of a cell. This great potential for clinical intervention has captured the interest and imagination of researchers in many fields. However, very few fields have been as prolific as the field of cancer research. This Special Issue provides but a glimpse of the large body of literature of microRNA biology in cancer research, containing 4 original research studies and 4 review articles that focus on specific hematologic or solid tumors in disease. Collectively, these articles highlight state-of-the-art approaches and methodologies for microRNA detection in tissue, blood, and other body fluids in a range of biomarkers applications, from early cancer detection to prognosis and treatment response. The articles also address some of the challenges regarding clinical implementation.

Deep Learning Applications with Practical Measured Results in Electronics Industries

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288632 / 9783039288649 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-864-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book collects 14 articles from the Special Issue entitled “Deep Learning Applications with Practical Measured Results in Electronics Industries” of Electronics. Topics covered in this Issue include four main parts: (1) environmental information analyses and predictions, (2) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and object tracking applications, (3) measurement and denoising techniques, and (4) recommendation systems and education systems. These authors used and improved deep learning techniques (e.g., ResNet (deep residual network), Faster-RCNN (faster regions with convolutional neural network), LSTM (long short term memory), ConvLSTM (convolutional LSTM), GAN (generative adversarial network), etc.) to analyze and denoise measured data in a variety of applications and services (e.g., wind speed prediction, air quality prediction, underground mine applications, neural audio caption, etc.). Several practical experiments were conducted, and the results indicate that the performance of the presented deep learning methods is improved compared with the performance of conventional machine learning methods.

Keywords

computational intelligence --- offshore wind --- forecasting --- machine learning --- neural networks --- neuro-fuzzy systems --- humidity sensor --- data fusion --- nonlinear optimization --- multiple linear regression --- GSA-BP --- geometric errors correction --- kinematic modelling --- lateral stage errors --- Imaging Confocal Microscope --- K-means clustering --- data partition --- Least Squares method --- deep learning --- multivariate time series forecasting --- multivariate temporal convolutional network --- CNN --- hyperspectral image classification --- information measure --- transfer learning --- neighborhood noise reduction --- visual tracking --- update occasion --- update mechanism --- background model --- network layer contribution --- saliency information --- geometric errors --- rigid body kinematics --- lateral stage errors --- imaging confocal microscope --- MCM uncertainty evaluation --- dot grid target --- smart grid --- foreign object --- binary classification --- convolutional network --- image inpainting --- content reconstruction --- instance segmentation --- underground mines --- intelligent surveillance --- residual networks --- compressed sensing --- image compression --- image restoration --- discrete wavelet transform --- intelligent tire manufacturing --- digital shearography --- faster region-based CNN --- tire bubble defects --- tire quality assessment --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- UAV --- trajectory planning --- GA --- A* --- multiple constraints --- recommender system --- human computer interaction --- eye-tracking device --- deep learning --- oral evaluation --- generative adversarial network --- neural audio caption --- gated recurrent unit --- long short-term memory --- deep learning --- machine learning --- supervised learning --- unsupervised learning --- reinforcement learning --- optimization techniques

Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039210343 9783039210350 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-035-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The continuous miniaturization of products and the growing complexity of their embedded multifunctionalities necessitates continuous research and development efforts regarding micro components and related micro manufacturing technologies. Highly miniaturized systems, manufactured using a wide variety of materials, have found application in key technological fields, such as healthcare devices, micro implants, mobility, communications, optics, and micro electromechanical systems. Innovations required for the high-precision manufacturing of micro components can specifically be achieved through optimizations using post-process (i.e., offline) and in-process (i.e., online) metrology of both process input and output parameters, as well as geometrical features of the produced micro parts. However, it is of critical importance to reduce the metrology and optimization efforts, since process and product quality control can represent a significant portion of the total production time in micro manufacturing. To solve this fundamental challenge, research efforts have been undertaken in order to define, investigate, implement, and validate the so-called “product/process manufacturing fingerprint” concept. The “product manufacturing fingerprint” concept refers to those unique dimensional outcomes (e.g., surface topography, form error, critical dimensions, etc.) on the produced component that, if kept under control and within specifications, ensure that the entire micro component complies to its specifications. The “process manufacturing fingerprint” is a specific process parameter or feature to be monitored and controlled, in order to maintain the manufacture of products within the specified tolerances. By integrating both product and process manufacturing fingerprint concepts, the metrology and optimization efforts are highly reduced. Therefore, the quality of the micro products increases, with an obvious improvement in production yield. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments and applications in micro- and sub-micro-scale manufacturing, process monitoring and control, as well as micro and sub-micro product quality assurance. Focus will be on micro manufacturing process chains and their micro product/process fingerprint, towards full process optimization and zero-defect micro manufacturing.

Keywords

micro-injection moulding --- quality assurance --- process monitoring --- micro metrology --- positioning platform --- Halbach linear motor --- commercial control hardware --- diffractive optics --- gratings --- microfabrication --- computer holography --- manufacturing signature --- process fingerprint --- Fresnel lenses --- injection compression molding --- injection molding --- micro structures replication --- confocal microscopy --- optical quality control --- uncertainty budget --- optimization --- precision injection molding --- quality control --- process monitoring --- product fingerprint --- process fingerprint --- electrical discharge machining --- electrical discharge machining (EDM) --- surface roughness --- surface integrity --- optimization --- desirability function --- satellite drop --- electrohydrodynamic jet printing --- charge relaxation time --- laser ablation --- superhydrophobic surface --- process fingerprint --- product fingerprint --- surface morphology --- artificial compound eye --- multi-spectral imaging --- lithography --- spectral splitting --- plasma-electrolytic polishing --- PeP --- surface modification --- finishing --- electro chemical machining --- ECM --- Electro sinter forging --- resistance sintering --- electrical current --- fingerprints --- electrical discharge machining --- micro drilling --- process monitoring --- quality control --- electrochemical machining (ECM) --- process control --- current monitoring --- current density --- surface roughness --- inline metrology --- haptic actuator --- impact analysis --- high strain rate effect --- damping --- 2-step analysis --- micro-grinding --- bioceramics --- materials characterisation --- dental implant --- microinjection moulding --- process fingerprints --- flow length --- quality assurance --- n/a

MEMS Technology for Biomedical Imaging Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216048 9783039216055 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-605-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biomedical imaging is the key technique and process to create informative images of the human body or other organic structures for clinical purposes or medical science. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has demonstrated enormous potential in biomedical imaging applications due to its outstanding advantages of, for instance, miniaturization, high speed, higher resolution, and convenience of batch fabrication. There are many advancements and breakthroughs developing in the academic community, and there are a few challenges raised accordingly upon the designs, structures, fabrication, integration, and applications of MEMS for all kinds of biomedical imaging. This Special Issue aims to collate and showcase research papers, short commutations, perspectives, and insightful review articles from esteemed colleagues that demonstrate: (1) original works on the topic of MEMS components or devices based on various kinds of mechanisms for biomedical imaging; and (2) new developments and potentials of applying MEMS technology of any kind in biomedical imaging. The objective of this special session is to provide insightful information regarding the technological advancements for the researchers in the community.

Keywords

tilted microcoil --- electromagnetically-driven --- surface micromachining --- polyimide capillary --- MEMS --- ego-motion estimation --- indoor navigation --- monocular camera --- scale ambiguity --- wearable sensors --- photoacoustic --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- miniaturized microscope --- lead-free piezoelectric materials --- high frequency ultrasonic transducer --- needle-type --- high spatial resolution --- ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer --- Si lens --- tight focus --- finite element simulation --- low noise amplifier (LNA) --- noise figure --- smart hydrogels --- bio-sensors --- chemo-sensor --- electrochemical sensors --- transduction techniques --- near-field microwave --- microwave resonator --- microwave remote sensing --- potentiometric sensor --- gold nanoparticles --- metal oxide field-effect transistor --- chemo-FET --- bio-FET --- photoacoustic imaging --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- MEMS scanning mirror --- micromachined US transducer --- microring resonator --- acoustic delay line --- MEMS mirror --- Lissajous scanning --- pseudo-resonant --- sensing --- imaging --- display --- MEMS actuators --- microendoscopy --- confocal --- two-photon --- wide-filed imaging --- photoacoustic --- fluorescence --- scanner --- capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) --- acoustics --- micromachining --- capacitive --- transducer --- modelling --- fabrication --- 3D Printing --- piezoelectric array --- ultrasonic transducer --- ultrasonic imaging --- micro-optics --- bioimaging --- microtechnology --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- in vitro --- in vivo --- cantilever waveguide --- electrostatic actuator --- non-resonating scanner --- optical scanner --- push-pull actuator --- rib waveguide --- n/a

Biomimetic Radical Chemistry and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039283927 9783039283934 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-393-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The enormous importance of free radical chemistry for a variety of biological events, including ageing and inflammation, has attracted a strong interest in understanding the related mechanistic steps at the molecular level. Modelling the free radical chemical reactivity of biological systems is an important research area. When studying free-radical-based chemical mechanisms, biomimetic chemistry and the design of established biomimetic models come into play to perform experiments in a controlled environment that is suitably designed to be in strict connection with cellular conditions. This Special Issue gives the reader a wide overview of biomimetic radical chemistry, where molecular mechanisms have been defined and molecular libraries of products are developed to also be used as traces for the discovery of some relevant biological processes. Several subjects are presented, with 12 articles and 6 reviews written by specialists in the fields of DNA, proteins, lipids, biotechnological applications, and bioinspired synthesis, having “free radicals” as a common denominator.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- glycogen phosphorylase --- anomeric spironucleosides --- 1,6-dioxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decane --- [1,5]-radical translocation --- DNA --- guanine quadruplexes --- radicals --- electron holes --- oxidative damage --- photo-ionization --- time-resolved spectroscopy --- inhomogeneous reactions --- radiosensitizers --- stationary radiolysis --- pulse radiolysis --- modified nucleosides --- cellular response --- liposomal somatostatin --- retarded delivery --- free radicals --- isomerization --- trans lipid --- peroxidation --- photolysis --- laser flash photolysis --- ?-radiolysis --- singlet oxygen --- nucleosides --- free radicals --- reaction mechanism --- catalase activity --- iron(IV)-oxo --- hydrogen peroxide --- oxidation --- kinetic studies --- gold nanoparticles --- albumin --- EPR spectroscopy --- Raman spectroscopy --- circular dichroism --- beta cells --- diabetes --- confocal microscopy --- lipidomics --- membrane fluidity maps --- cell micropolarity maps --- DNA damage --- 5?,8-cyclopurines --- 8-oxo-dG --- free radicals --- pulse radiolysis --- gamma radiolysis --- Fenton reaction --- oligonucleotides --- oxidative DNA damage --- DNA replication stress --- replication fork stalling --- genomic and epigenomic instability --- DNA methylation --- histone modifications --- miRNAs --- iron porphyrin --- heme --- ATRPase --- iron-mediated ATRP --- bio-mimicking catalyst --- biomimetic radical reaction --- bioinspired chemical catalysis --- protein labeling --- DNA oxidation --- DNA hole transfer --- DNA --- quantum dynamics --- electron transfer --- charge transfer --- radical reaction --- azidoalkylation --- carboazidation --- sulfones --- azides --- Julia–Kocienski olefination --- DNA damage --- copper --- chemical nuclease --- intercalation --- free radical oxidation --- protein stability --- therapeutic proteins --- thiyl radicals --- oxidation --- fragmentation --- cross-link --- 2-thiouracil --- radiosensitizers --- ?OH and ?N3 radicals --- 2c-3e S?S-bonded intermediates --- pulse radiolysis --- TD-DFT methods --- thiobases --- nucleobase derivatives --- reactive aldehydes --- hydroxynonenal --- oxononenal --- free fatty acids --- mitochondrial uncoupling protein --- lipid bilayer membranes

Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218486 9783039218493 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-849-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Development of strategies to assist the movement of poorly permeable molecules across biological barriers has long been the goal of drug delivery science. In the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in advanced drug delivery systems that aim to address this issue. However, most proprietary delivery technologies that have progressed to clinical development are based on permeation enhancers (PEs) that have a history of safe use in man. This Special Issue entitled “Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field” aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the application of PEs to improve drug absorption. Emphasis is placed on identification of novel permeation enhancers, mechanisms of barrier alteration, physicochemical properties of PEs that contribute to optimal enhancement action, new delivery models to assess PEs, studies assessing safety of PEs, approaches to assist translation of PEs into effective oral, nasal, ocular and vaginal dosage forms and combining PEs with other delivery strategies.

Keywords

absorption enhancers --- sugar-based surfactants --- biocompatibility studies --- transmucosal drug delivery --- intestinal permeation enhancers --- sodium cholate (NaC) --- N-dodecyl-?-D-maltoside (DDM) --- small intestine --- enterocyte --- brush border --- tryptophan --- oral delivery --- insulin --- GLP-1 --- intestinal absorption --- amino acid --- cell-penetrating peptide --- combined microsphere --- chitosan --- cyclodextrin --- nasal delivery --- nose to brain transport --- penetration enhancer --- nasal formulation --- in vivo studies --- nose to brain delivery --- antiepileptic drug --- drug delivery --- block copolymers --- thermogel system --- chitosan derivatives --- amphiphilic polymers --- polymeric micelles --- quaternization --- curcumin --- intestinal delivery --- mucoadhesiveness --- cervicovaginal tumors --- cationic functionalization --- imatinib --- nanocrystals --- in situ hydrogel --- bioenhancer --- cytochrome P450 --- drug absorption enhancer --- efflux --- metabolism --- P-glycoprotein --- pharmacokinetic interaction --- tight junction --- Aloe vera --- gel --- whole leaf --- absorption enhancement --- Caco-2 --- confocal laser scanning microscopy --- F-actin --- FITC-dextran --- tight junctions --- transepithelial electrical resistance --- permeation enhancer --- oral delivery --- formulation --- permeability --- safety --- simulated intestinal fluid --- hydrophobization --- epithelium --- compound 48/80 --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- mast cell activator --- vaccine adjuvant --- nasal vaccination --- absorption enhancer --- antimicrobial peptide --- Caco-2 --- claudin --- cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) --- drug delivery --- intestinal epithelial cells --- KLAL --- PN159 --- tight junction modulator --- oral macromolecule delivery --- oral peptides --- sodium caprate --- salcaprozate sodium --- epithelial permeability --- epithelial transport --- nasal permeability --- nose-to-brain --- simvastatin --- nanocapsules --- mucoadhesion --- CNS disorders --- chitosan --- nasal --- pulmonary --- drug administration --- absorption enhancers --- nanoparticle --- and liposome --- absorption enhancer --- gemini surfactant --- intestinal absorption --- poorly absorbed drug --- Caco-2 cells --- PTH 1-34 --- teriparatide --- nasal delivery --- pharmacokinetics --- osteoporosis --- man --- sheep --- clinical trial --- preclinical --- Caco-2 --- intestinal absorption --- nanomedicine --- nanoparticle --- oral delivery --- transferrin --- ocular drug delivery --- cornea --- penetration enhancers --- ocular conditions --- ophthalmology --- permeation enhancers --- absorption modifying excipients --- oral delivery --- nasal delivery --- ocular delivery --- vaginal delivery --- transmucosal permeation

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