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Third-Generation Neuroimaging: Translating Research into Clinical Utility

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450442 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-044-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

Psychiatric imaging needs to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology underling the early phases of psychiatric diseases to translate imaging findings in the clinical field targeting clinical outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventative interventions. This research topic aims to bring psychiatric neuroimaging studies towards translational impacts in clinical practice, suggesting that brain abnormalities may be of potential use for detecting clinical outcomes as treatment response. First-generation psychiatric neuroimaging focused on simple structural brain alterations associated with the neurobiology of the illness. These early studies adopted imaging methods mainly including computerized tomography (CT) to investigate brain size. Second-generation psychiatric neuroimaging studies benefited from more sophisticated techniques which included structural methods (sMRI) coupled with whole-brain automated methods (voxel based morphometry, VBM), white-matter methods (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI and tractography), functional methods (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and advanced neurochemical imaging (PET techniques addressing receptor bindings and pre/post synaptic functions, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS) and sophisticated meta-analytical imaging methods. However, no consistent or reliable anatomical or functional brain alterations have been univocally associated with any psychiatric disorder and no clinical applications have been developed in psychiatric neuroimaging. There is thus urgent need of psychiatric imaging to move towards third-generation paradigms. In this research topic, these novel neuroimaging studies here requested to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology to translate imaging findings in the clinical field targeting longitudinal outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventative interventions. With respect to methods, the most recent neuroimaging approaches (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI, spectroscopy, PET) are welcome. Third generation psychiatric imaging studies including multimodal approaches, multi-center analyses, mega-analyses, effective connectivity, dynamic causal modelling, support vector machines, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Furthermore, these third-generation imaging studies may benefit from the incorporation of new sources of neurobiological information such as whole genome sequencing, proteomic, lipidomic and expression profiles and cellular models derived from recent induced pluripotent stem cells research. We collect Original Research, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Book Review, Clinical Case Study, Clinical Trial, Editorial, General Commentary, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Opinion, Perspective, and Technology Report from international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of this research topic is intended to provide the field with current third-generation neuroimaging approaches in translational psychiatry that is hoped to improve and create therapeutic options for psychiatric diseases.

Circulating Tumor Cells: Finding Rare Events for A Huge Knowledge of Cancer Dissemination

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ISBN: 9783039286980 / 9783039286997 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-699-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a real-time liquid biopsy approach can be used to obtain new insights into metastasis biology, and as companion diagnostics to improve the stratification of therapies and to obtain insights into the therapy-induced selection of cancer cells. In this book, we will cover all the different facets of CTCs to assemble a huge corpus of knowledge on cancer dissemination: technologies for their enrichment, detection, and characterization; their analysis at the single-cell level; their journey as CTC microemboli; their clinical relevance; their biology with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); their stem-cell properties; their potential to initiate metastasis at distant sites; their ex vivo expansion; and their escape from the immune system.

Keywords

circulating tumor cells --- circulating tumor DNA --- liquid biopsy --- metastatic colorectal cancer --- FOLFIRINOX --- circulating tumor cells --- CTC --- liquid biopsy --- CTM --- CTMat --- CTC biology --- CTC capture technology --- metastasis --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) --- epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) --- fibronectin --- integrin B1 --- SLUG --- major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) --- immunomodulation --- bone marrow --- melanoma --- disseminated tumor cells --- solid cancers --- single-cell analysis --- enrichment and detection technologies --- flow cytometry --- tumor stem cells --- HMB-45 --- CD133 --- locally advanced rectal cancer --- circulating tumor cells --- RAD23B --- thymidylate synthase --- chemoradioresistance --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- epithelial–mesenchymal transition --- stem cells --- early breast cancer --- prostate cancer (PCa) --- circulating tumor cells (CTC) --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- metastasis --- xenograft models --- breast cancer --- prostate cancer --- CTC --- AR --- AR-V7 --- ctRNA --- exosome --- circulating tumor cells --- hematological cells --- neutrophils --- platelets --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- melanoma --- liquid biopsy --- EPISPOT --- CellSearch® --- liquid biopsy --- CTCs --- immune checkpoint inhibitors --- PD-L1 expression --- NSCLC --- small-cell lung carcinoma --- circulating tumor cells --- microfluidics --- gene expression analysis --- synaptophysin --- chromogranin A --- rovalpituzumab tesirine --- leukocyte-derived extracellular vesicles --- immunofluorescence imaging --- EpCAM enrichment --- CellSearch --- EasyCount slides --- ACCEPT --- CTC --- heterogeneity --- liquid biopsy --- liquid surgery --- clinical utility --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- glioma --- biomarker --- rVAR2 --- malaria --- enrichment and detection technologies --- prostate cancer --- biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- androgen receptor --- ARV7 --- abiraterone --- enzalutamide --- metastasis --- tumor-initiating cells (TICs) --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- CTC-derived xenografts --- CTC-derived ex vivo models --- cerebrospinal liquid biopsy --- in vivo flow cytometry --- tumor biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- ctDNA --- miRNA --- exosomes --- emboli --- targeted therapy --- circulating tumor cells --- tumor cell dissemination --- immune system --- microbiome --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- clinical trials --- breast cancer --- CTC-based treatment decisions --- circulating tumour cells --- colorectal cancer --- colorectal surgery --- microsatellite instability --- microfluidics --- immunophenotyping --- fish --- liquid biopsy --- circulating leukemia cells --- circulating plasma cells --- n/a

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