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Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs

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ISBN: 9783039214631 / 9783039214648 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-464-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. Studies of tumor biology have not only provided insights into the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, but also led to discovery of molecules that have been developed into cancer biomarkers and targets. Multi-platforms for molecular characterization of tumors using next-generation genomic sequencing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and blood-based biopsies have greatly expanded the portfolio of potential biomarkers and targets. These cancer biomarkers have been developed for diagnosis, early detection, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response. The molecular targets have been exploited for anti-cancer therapy and delivery of therapeutic agents. This Special Issue of Biomedicines focuses on recent advances in the discovery, characterization, translation, and clinical application of cancer biomarkers and targets in malignant diseases of the digestive system. The goal is to stimulate basic and translational research and clinical collaboration in this exciting field with the hope of developing strategies for prevention and early detection/diagnosis of cancer in digestive organs, and improving therapeutic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with these malignant diseases.

Keywords

colorectal cancer --- intestinal disorder --- intestinal tumors --- zebrafish --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- immunotherapy --- biomarkers --- Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) --- gastric carcinoma --- molecular profiling --- precision therapy --- pembrolizumab --- predictive biomarkers --- ramucirumab --- The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) --- therapeutic targets --- trastuzumab --- biliary tract carcinoma --- chemotherapy --- clinical trial --- colorectal carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- gastrointestinal oncology --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunotherapy --- pancreatic carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- Liver transplantation --- liver graft injury --- intragraft gene expression profiles --- cell adhesion molecules --- CD274 --- HFE --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunohistochemistry --- molecular profiling --- next-generation sequencing --- precision medicine --- predictive biomarkers --- gastrointestinal oncology --- pancreatic carcinoma --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- biliary tract carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- colorectal carcinoma --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- liver transplant --- targeted therapy --- psychosocial support --- G protein–coupled receptors --- cholecystokinin --- gastrin --- gastrin-releasing peptide --- bombesin --- neurokinin --- neurotensin --- somatostatin --- circulating tumor cells --- colorectal carcinoma --- CAM invasion assay --- phenotypic mosaics --- tumor progenitor --- biomarker --- gastrointestinal malignancies --- immunotherapy --- n/a

Towards New Promising Discoveries for Lung Cancer Patients: A Selection of Papers from the First Joint Meeting on Lung Cancer of the FHU OncoAge (Nice, France) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA)

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ISBN: 9783039214518 / 9783039214525 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-452-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This Special Issue of Cancers (Basel) is mainly dedicated to selecting papers from the talks given during the first Joint Meeting on Lung Cancer (JMLC) between the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas USA) and the Hospital University Federation (HUF) OncoAge (University Côte d’Azur, Nice, France) (Nice, September 2018). The central theme of JMLC is to discuss new advances and exchange ideas regarding lung cancer. Notably, the talks covered different topics on new therapeutic strategies (targeted therapy and immuno-oncology), molecular and cellular biology, biomarkers, and the epidemiology of lung cancer. Special attention was also given to lung cancer in elderly patients. The articles published in this Special Issue covered subjects such as the assessment of new biomarkers and new approaches for the early detection of lung cancer, epidemiological data, and emphasized a place for the newly characterized cellular pathways in lung cancer, which opens room for therapeutic perspectives for lung cancer patients.

Dual Specificity Phosphatases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Biological Function

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ISBN: 9783039216888 / 9783039216895 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-689-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a heterogeneous group of protein tyrosine phosphatases with the ability to dephosphorylate Ser/Thr and Tyr residues from proteins, as well as from other non-proteinaceous substrates including signaling lipids. DUSPs include, among others, MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and small-size atypical DUSPs. MKPs are enzymes specialized in regulating the activity and subcellular location of MAPKs, whereas the function of small-size atypical DUSPs seems to be more diverse. DUSPs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. DUSPs regulate essential physiological processes, including immunity, neurobiology and metabolic homeostasis, and have been implicated in tumorigenesis, pathological inflammation and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the expression or function of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs have consequences essential to human disease, making these enzymes potential biological markers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue covers recent advances in the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs, and their relevance in human disease.

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 / 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

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2020 (1)

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