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Dietary Pattern and Health

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ISBN: 9783038425953 9783038425960 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-596-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 09:33:34
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Topics have a clear focus on overall dietary patterns and health outcomes. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:* Dietary patterns and chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and mental health problems.* Dietary patterns and mortality* Dietary patterns and pregnancy outcomes* Association between dietary patterns and cognition* The mechanisms linking dietary patterns and chronic diseases.

Dietary Pattern and Health

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ISBN: 9783038425878 9783038425885 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: XII, 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-02 15:53:45
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Topics have a clear focus on overall dietary patterns and health outcomes. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:* Dietary patterns and chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and mental health problems.* Dietary patterns and mortality* Dietary patterns and pregnancy outcomes* Association between dietary patterns and cognition* The mechanisms linking dietary patterns and chronic diseases.

The Role of Physical Fitness on Cardiovascular Responses to Stress

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194636 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-463-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Cardiovascular responses to physical and/ or mental stressors has been a topic of great interest for some time. For example, significant changes of cardiovascular control and reactivity have been highlighted as important mechanisms for the protective effect of exercise as a simple and effective, non medical therapy for many pathologies. However, despite the great number of studies performed to date (e.g. >54,000 entries in Pubmed for “cardiovascular stress”), important questions of the role stress has on cardiovascular function still remain. For instance, What factors account for the different cardiovascular responses between mental and physical stressors? How do these different components of the cardiovascular system interact during stress? Which cardiovascular responses to stress are the most important for identifying normal, depressed, and enhanced cardiovascular function? Can these stress-induced responses assist with patient diagnosis and prognosis? What impact does physical fitness have on the relationship between cardiovascular function and health? The current topic examined our current understanding of cardiovascular responses to stress and the significant role that physical fitness has on these responses for improved function and health. Manuscripts focusing on heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate recovery, and other novel cardiovascular assessments were especially encouraged.

Therapeutic Implications of Circadian Rhythms

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196654 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-665-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Circadian rhythms are biological processes displaying endogenous and entrainable oscillations of about 24 hours. They are driven by a group of genes called clock genes that have been widely observed in plants, animals and even in bacteria. In mammals, the core clock genes are rhythmically expressed in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master clock residing in the hypothalamus, and almost all peripheral tissues where they control numerous target genes in a circadian manner, and thus affect many physiological and biochemical processes. Evidence suggests that disruption of the circadian rhythms (or desynchronization) is a significant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and sleep disorders. Evidence also suggests that the disruption suppresses immune function and increases vulnerability to infectious diseases. Restoring or strengthening the circadian rhythm may be therapeutic for these conditions. This becomes exceptionally important in modern societies because many people are suffering from frequent desynchronization due to shift working, exposure to artificial light, travel by transmeridian air flight, and involvement in social activities. Besides, the temporal variations in the incidence and severity of many diseases, such as the onset of cardiovascular events, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammatory diseases and mental disorders have also drawn increasing attention to the circadian clock. The circadian rhythms affect not only the health status, but also the drug efficiency. The effects (and side effects) of many drugs vary with biological timing. The tolerance of many medications displays circadian variation as well. The timing of medical treatment in coordination with the body clock may significantly increase the desired effects of drugs, and lower the dose and toxicity. In addition, circadian rhythms can also be modulated by some therapeutic drugs, for example, melatonin and modafinil, which are used to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In this Research Topic, we assemble a series of critical review and research articles that focus on the therapeutic implications of circadian rhythms. Topics include, but are not limited to: • Circadian disruption caused diseases or disorders and related intervention • Temporal manifestation of diseases or disorders and therapeutic implications • The effects of circadian rhythms on drugs • The effects of drugs on circadian rhythms

Current Challenges in Cardiovascular Molecular Diagnostics

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452811 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-281-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The field of cardiovascular genetics has tremendously benefited from the recent application of massive parallel sequencing technology also referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS). However, along with the discovery of additional genes associated with human cardiac diseases, the analysis of large dataset of genetic information uncovered a much more complex and variegated landscape, which often departs from the comfort zone of the monogenic Mendelian diseases image that clinical molecular geneticists have been well acquainted with for many decades. It is now clear that, in addition to highly penetrant genetic variants, which in isolation are able to recapitulate the full clinical presentation when expressed in animal models, we are now aware that a small but significant fraction of subjects presenting with cardiac muscle diseases such as cardiomyopathies or primary arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), may harbor at least two deleterious variants in the same gene (compound heterozygous) or in different gene (double heterozygous). Although the clinical presentation in subjects with more than one deleterious variant appears to be more severe and with an earlier disease onset, it somehow changes the viewpoint of clinical molecular geneticists whose aim is to identify all possible genetic contributors to a human condition. In this light, the employment in clinical diagnostics of the NGS technology, allowing the simultaneous interrogation of a DNA target spanning from large panel of genes up to the entire genome, will definitely aid at uncovering all such contributors, which will have to be tested functionally to confirm their role in human cardiac conditions. The uncovering of all clinically relevant deleterious changes associated with a cardiovascular disease would probably increase our understanding of the clinical variability commonly occurring among affected family relatives, and potentially provide with unexpected therapeutic targets for the treatment of symptoms related to the presence of “accessory” deleterious genetic variants other than the key molecular culprit. The objective of this Research Topic is to explore the current challenges presenting to the cardiovascular genetics providers, such as clinical geneticists, genetic counselors, clinical molecular geneticists and molecular pathologists involved in the diagnosis, counseling, testing and interpretation of genetic tests results for the comprehensive management of patients affected by cardiovascular genetic disorders.

New Lipid Lowering Therapies for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Lessons from the Past and Future Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039216765 9783039216772 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-677-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book illustrates some of the most recent research efforts that have been made in lowering plasma cholesterol levels in patients with CVD. Selected articles aimed to illuminate advances and urgent challenges in the management of CVD, including disease management using statin-combined therapeutic strategies.

Adipokines 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039285860 / 9783039285877 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-587-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Once viewed solely as fat storage cells, adipocytes and their adipokines have now been proven to be central for human health. Understanding that overweight and obesity may increase the risk for various diseases requires detailed characterization of adipokine function. Weight gain, weight regain, and fasting affect adipocyte health and accordingly their secretome. Different adipose tissue deposits exist and they vary in cellular composition and function. The evidence is strong of a role of adipokines in cancer, reproductive function, neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases ,and rheumatoid arthritis. Adipokines are considered useful biomarkers for adipose tissue and metabolic health, and may be used as diagnostic tools in rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or sepsis. This book contains 10 original articles and 9 review articles focusing on these bioactive peptides. Several articles deal with chemerin, an adipokine discovered more than 20 years ago. Data so far have resulted in promising insights related to its biological function. We are only beginning to understand the multiple roles of chemerin, the mechanisms regulating its activity, and the signaling pathways used by this chemokine. Adipokine receptor agonists and antagonists may result in the formulation of novel drugs and ultimately may lead to new therapeutic targets to be used in clinical practice.

Keywords

adipokines --- secreted frizzled-related protein 5 --- leptin --- ghrelin --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- obesity --- proteolysis --- Tango bioassay --- biologic activity --- chemerin receptors --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- leptin --- ghrelin --- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease --- fatty liver --- free fatty acids --- label-free proteomic profiling --- adipokine --- obesity --- visceral fat --- sick fat --- annexins --- adipose tissue --- adiponectin --- cholesterol --- glucose homeostasis --- inflammation --- insulin --- lipid metabolism --- obesity --- triglycerides --- adipokine --- chemerin --- leukocyte --- cancer --- adipokines --- PCOS --- polycystic ovary morphology --- follicular fluid --- human granulosa cells --- chemerin --- chemerin receptors --- hypothalamus --- oestrous cycle --- early pregnancy --- pig --- alpha-fetoprotein --- liver steatosis --- hypertension --- adipokines --- SGBS adipocytes --- glucose restriction --- in vitro fat regain --- weight regain --- complement factors --- cathepsins --- extracellular remodeling --- adipokine --- rheumatic diseases --- inflammation --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- ovary --- testis --- adipose tissue --- polycystic ovary syndrome --- preeclempsia --- gestational diabetes --- testicular pathologies --- rheumatoid arthritis --- tocilizumab --- lipids --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- resistin --- leptin --- cancer --- obesity --- adipokine --- chemerin --- chemokine-like receptor 1 --- G protein-coupled receptor 1 --- C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 --- critical illness --- sepsis --- adipokines --- biomarker --- prognosis --- ICU --- adipokine --- adipose-brain axis --- brain health --- neurodegeneration --- depression --- energy metabolism --- inflammation --- hypothalamus --- microglia --- adiponectin --- adipokine --- myokine --- fitness --- metabolically healthy obese --- early-life programming --- epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) --- prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) --- EP3 receptor --- EP4 receptor --- exchange protein directly activated by cAMP isoform 2 (EPAC2) --- stimulating growth factor 2 (ST2) --- interleukin(IL)-33 --- Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) --- fat mass --- n/a

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