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The Impact of Microorganisms on Consumption of Atmospheric Trace Gases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453269 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-326-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

Gases with a mixing ratio of less than one percent in the lower atmosphere (i.e. the troposphere) are considered as trace gases. Numerous of these trace gases originate from biological processes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. These gases are of relevance for the climate as they contribute to global warming or to the troposphere’s chemical reactive system that builds the ozone layer or they impact on the stability of aerosols, greenhouse, and pollutant gases. These reactive trace gases include methane, a multitude of volatile organic compounds of biogenic origin (bVOCs) and inorganic gases such as nitrogen oxides or ozone. The regulatory function of microorganisms for trace gas cycling has been intensively studied for the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane, but is less well understood for microorganisms that metabolize molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or bVOCs. The studies compiled in this Research Topic reflect this very well. While a number of articles focus on nitrous oxide and methane or carbon monoxide oxidation, only a few articles address conversion processes of further bVOCs. The Research Topic is complemented by three review articles about the consumption of methane and monoterpenes, as well as the role of the phyllosphere as a particular habitat for trace gas-consuming microorganisms, and point out future research directions in the field. The presented scientific work illustrates that the field of microbial regulation of trace glas fluxes is still in its infancy when one broadens the view on gases beyond methane and nitrous oxide. However, there is a societal need to better predict global dynamics of trace gases that impact on the functionality and warming of the troposphere. Upcoming modelling approaches will need further information on process rates, features and distribution of the driving microorganisms to fulfill this demanding task.

Bioconversion Processes

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ISBN: 9783038429456 9783038429463 Year: Pages: VI, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 12:05:03
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Compared to conventional chemical technologies and other similar industrial processes, bioprocesses represent a more sustainable and environmentally-friendly alternative for the production of fuels and platform chemicals. In biorefineries, different kinds of feedstocks, such as biomass or lignocellulosic materials in general, can be used and fermented by microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, algae), after some pretreatment steps, to produce high added-value metabolites. More recently, wastes, wastewaters and also waste gases have been shown to be suitable for resource recovery or for their bioconversion to (bio)fuels (e.g., ethanol, butanol, hexanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas) or other commercial products (e.g., biopolymers). In this sense, much effort has also been made to bioconvert greenhouse gases, such as CO2, into useful products.The goal of this Special Issue is to publish both recent innovative research data, as well as review papers on the fermentation of different types of substrates to commercial (bio)fuels and (bio)products, mainly focusing on the bioconversion of pollutants in solid, liquid, or gas phases (wastes, wastewaters, waste gases).

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215355 / 9783039215348 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-534-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

Protective and Detrimental Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

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ISBN: 9783039218066 / 9783039218073 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-807-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book “Protective and Detrimental Role of Heme Oxygenase-1”, includes a selection of original research papers and reviews aimed at understanding the dual role (protective and detrimental) of HO-1 and the involved signaling pathways. Original research papers and reviews aimed at the identification of natural molecules or new synthetic compounds able to modulate HO-1 activity/expression help make HO-1 a potential therapeutic target for the amelioration of various diseases.

Keywords

ferroptosis --- heme oxygenase-1 --- iron --- reactive oxygen species --- glutathione --- chemotherapy --- paracetamol --- Myristica fragrans kernels --- heme oxygenase 1 --- liver --- glucocorticoid receptor --- GR --- heme oxygenase 1 --- HO-1 --- prostate cancer --- ANTIGEN presenting cell --- tolerance --- Tet-ON system --- antigen presentation --- analgesia --- carbon monoxide --- heme oxygenase 1 --- inflammatory pain --- locus coeruleus --- nitric oxide --- bilirubin --- Gunn rats --- hyperbilirubinemia --- inflammation --- LPS --- NF-?B --- caloric restriction --- Sirtuin 1 --- Heme Oxygenase-1 --- PGC-1? --- cardiomyopathy --- diabetes mellitus --- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) --- Pancreatic oxidative damage --- Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers --- Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) --- Reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) --- Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) --- Gamma-Glutamyl-Cysteine Ligase (GGCL) --- prostate cancer --- heme oxygenase --- metformin --- apoptosis --- ER stress --- HO-1 activity inhibitor --- carbon monoxide --- lung preservation --- ischemia–reperfusion injury --- high-pressure gas --- Colon cancer --- Betula etnensis Raf. --- oxidative stress --- heme oxigenase-1 --- ferroptosis --- thiol groups --- angiotensin II --- mineralocorticoid receptor --- heme oxygenase 1 --- sirtuin 1 --- adipocytes --- oxidative stress --- heme oxygenase-1 --- atherosclerosis --- coronary artery disease --- peripheral artery disease --- carotid plaque --- heme oxygenase --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- hemoglobin --- heme --- n/a

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213290 / 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Abstract

Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

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