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Design Transactions

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ISBN: 9781787355026 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787355026 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-06 07:12:48
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Design Transactions presents the outcome of new research to emerge from ‘Innochain’, a consortium of six leading European architectural and engineering-focused institutions and their industry partners. The book presents new advances in digital design tooling that challenge established building cultures and systems. It offers new sustainable and materially smart design solutions with a strong focus on changing the way the industry thinks, designs, and builds our physical environment. Divided into sections exploring communication, simulation and materialisation, Design Transactions explores digital and physical prototyping and testing that challenges the traditional linear construction methods of incremental refinement. This novel research investigates ‘the digital chain’ between phases as an opportunity for extended interdisciplinary design collaboration. The highly illustrated book features work from 15 early-stage researchers alongside chapters from world-leading industry collaborators and academics.

Noise and Vibration Control in the Built Environment

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ISBN: 9783038424215 9783038424208 Year: Pages: XII, 176 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:49:16
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With global urbanization rapidly rising and the increasing need of high-quality built environments, the requirement of achieving improved sound quality, both for outdoor and indoor environments, has received a lot of attention. This Special Issue collection reflects the current state of the art, with 12 papers covering environmental acoustics; the influence of soundscapes on people’s behavior; soundscape pleasantness estimation; tranquility; perceived quality of sonic environments; sound and vibration-related health complaints concerning tramways; and the disturbance of construction machines; as well as in building and room acoustics, including natural ventilation-enabling façade noise control devices; the effect of external shading devices; rating method of airborne sound insulation; water supply and drainage noise, and the effect of diffusive surfaces in auditoria. Some papers cover research on the engineering aspects of sound and vibration, such as sound propagation and noise control techniques, as well as perception aspects of sound, such as indoor acoustic comfort and environmental soundscapes. The book is prefaced by Prof. S Wu, entitled ‘Sustainable Urban Sound Environment’.

Emerging Technologies to Promote and Evaluate Physical Activity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192984 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-298-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Increasingly, efforts to promote and measure physical activity are achieving greater precision, greater ease of use, and/or greater scope by incorporating emerging technologies. This is significant for physical activity promotion because more precise measurement will allow investigators to better understand where, when, and how physical activity is and is not occurring, thus enabling more effective targeting of particular behavior settings. Emerging technologies associated with the measurement and evaluation of physical activity are noteworthy because: (1) Their ease of use and transferability can greatly increase external validity of measures and findings; (2) Technologies can significantly increase the ability to analyze patterns; (3) They can improve the ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of public health surveillance due to real-time capabilities associated with many emerging technologies; (4) There is a need for research and papers about the cyberinfrastructure required to cope with big data (multiple streams, processing, aggregation, visualization, etc.); and (5) Increasingly blurred boundaries between measurement and intervention activity (e.g., the quantified-self /self-tracking movement) may necessitate a reevaluation of the conventional scientific model for designing and evaluating these sorts of studies. There have been many recent, disparate advances related to this topic. Advances such as crowdsourcing allow for input from large, diverse audiences that can help to identify and improve infrastructure for activity (e.g., large group identification of environmental features that are conducive or inhibiting to physical activity on a national and even global scale). Technologies such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometry are now available in many mobile phones and can be used for identifying and promoting activity and also understanding naturalistically-occurring activity. SenseCam and other personal, visual devices and mobile apps provide person point of view context to physical activity lifestyle and timing. Further, multiple sensor systems are enabling better identification of types of activities (like stair climbing and jumping) that could not previously be identified readily using objective measures like pedometers or accelerometers in isolation. The ability of activity sensors to send data to remote servers allows for the incorporation of online technology (e.g., employing an online social-network as a source of inspiration or accountability to achieve physical activity goals), and websites such as Stickk.com enable individuals to make public contracts visible to other users and also incorporates financial incentives and disincentives in order to promote behaviors including physical activity. In addition, the increasing use of active-gaming (e.g., Wii, XBox Kinect) in homes, schools, and other venues further underscores the growing link between technology and physical activity. Improvements in mathematical models and computer algorithms also allow greater capacity for classifying and evaluating physical activity, improving consistency across research studies. Emerging technologies in the promotion and evaluation of physical activity is a significant area of interest because of its ability to greatly increase the amount and quality of global recorded measurements of PA patterns and its potential to more effectively promote PA. Emerging technologies related to physical activity build on our own and others’ interdisciplinary collaborations in employing technology to address public health challenges. This research area is innovative in that is uses emerging resources including social media, crowdsourcing, and online gaming to better understand patterns of physical activity.

Microbiome Interplay and Control

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455058 Year: Pages: 421 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-505-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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In complex systems, such as our body or a plant, the host is living together with thousands of microbes, which support the entire system in function and health. The stability of a microbiome is influenced by environmental changes, introduction of microbes and microbial communities, or other factors. As learned in the past, microbial diversity is the key and low-diverse microbiomes often mirror out-of-control situations or disease. It is now our task to understand the molecular principles behind the complex interaction of microbes in, on and around us in order to optimize and control the function of the microbial community – by changing the environment or the addition of the right microorganisms. This Research Topic focuses on studies (including e.g. original research, perspectives, mini reviews, and opinion papers) that investigate and discuss: 1) The role of the microbiome for the host/environmental system 2) The exchange and change of microbes and microbial communities (interplay) 3) The influence of external factors toward the stability of a microbiome 4) Methods, possibilities and approaches to change and control a system’s microbiome (e.g. in human or plant disease) 5) Experimental systems and approaches in microbiome research.The articles span the areas: human health and disease, animal and plant microbiomes, microbial interplay and control, methodology and the built environment microbiome.

Walkable Neighborhoods: The Link between Public Health, Urban Design, and Transportation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219308 9783039219315 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-931-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Transportation --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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It is now widely recognized that individual-based motivational interventions alone are not sufficient to address the global pandemic of physical inactivity (lack of exercise and too much sitting time). There has been a growing interest in the effect the physically built environment can have on people’s active behaviors. The fundamental assumption is that surrounding physical environments can support active behaviors among a large number of people with long-term effects. This topic has received much attention over the last decade, mainly in the three fields of urban design, public health, and transportation. This Special Issue aims to provide multidisciplinary and evidence-based state-of-the-art research on how the locations where people live impact their active behaviors and health outcomes.

Keywords

urban design --- active living --- aging --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- age-friendly environments --- older adult --- physical activity --- social connectedness --- physical environment --- citizen science --- Discovery Tool --- built environment --- urban health --- urban form --- walking --- physical activity --- health promotion --- walkability --- neighborhood --- older adult --- chronic diseases --- body mass --- disease mapping --- geographic variation --- obese --- overweight --- spatial analysis --- walkability --- traffic safety --- walking --- cycling --- infrastructure --- active travel --- active transport --- neighbourhood --- scale --- built environment --- physical activity --- walking --- soft mobility --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- health outcomes --- active living --- street network configuration --- peripheral neighbourhoods --- pedestrian flow --- streetscape features --- Istanbul --- walkable neighborhood --- sitting --- elderly --- built environment --- non-communicable diseases --- Africa --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- sedentary behaviour --- neighbourhood --- walkability --- active living --- survey --- questionnaire --- mobility management --- public transport --- step counts --- city planning --- compact city --- neighborhood --- natural experiment --- built environment --- urban design --- policy evaluation --- active living --- liveability --- Australia --- walkability --- environment --- overweight --- obesity --- review

People, Places and Policy

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Regions and Cities ISBN: 9781315683904 9781138925205 9781317407577 9781317407560 9781317407553 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9781315683904 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:15
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The Open Access version of this book, available at www.tandfebooks.com, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. Set within the context of UK devolution and constitutional change, People, Places and Policy offers important and interesting insights into ‘place-making’ and ‘locality-making’ in contemporary Wales. Combining policy research with policy-maker and stakeholder interviews at various spatial scales (local, regional, national), it examines the historical processes and working practices that have produced the complex political geography of Wales. This book looks at the economic, social and political geographies of Wales, which in the context of devolution and public service governance are hotly debated. It offers a novel ‘new localities’ theoretical framework for capturing the dynamics of locality-making, to go beyond the obsession with boundaries and coterminous geographies expressed by policy-makers and politicians. Three localities – Heads of the Valleys (north of Cardiff), central and west coast regions (Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire and the former district of Montgomeryshire in Powys) and the A55 corridor (from Wrexham to Holyhead) – are discussed in detail to illustrate this and also reveal the geographical tensions of devolution in contemporary Wales. This book is an original statement on the making of contemporary Wales from the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD) researchers. It deploys a novel ‘new localities’ theoretical framework and innovative mapping techniques to represent spatial patterns in data. This allows the timely uncovering of both unbounded and fuzzy relational policy geographies, and the more bounded administrative concerns, which come together to produce and reproduce over time Wales’ regional geography.

Landscape Urbanism and Green Infrastructure

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ISBN: 9783039213696 9783039213702 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-370-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This volume examines the applicability of landscape urbanism theory in contemporary landscape architecture practice by bringing together ecology and architecture in the built environment. Using participatory planning of green infrastructure and application of nature-based solutions to address urban challenges, landscape urbanism seeks to reintroduce critical connections between natural and urban systems. In light of ongoing developments in landscape architecture, the goal is a paradigm shift towards a landscape that restores and rehabilitates urban ecosystems. Nine contributions examine a wide range of successful cases of designing livable and resilient cities in different geographical contexts, from the United States of America to Australia and Japan, and through several European cities in Italy, Portugal, Estonia, and Greece. While some chapters attempt to conceptualize the interconnections between cities and nature, others clearly have an empirical focus. Efforts such as the use of ornamental helophyte plants in bioretention ponds to reduce and treat stormwater runoff, the recovery of a poorly constructed urban waterway or participatory approaches for optimizing the location of green stormwater infrastructure and examining the environmental justice issue of equative availability and accessibility to public open spaces make these innovations explicit. Thus, this volume contributes to the sustainable cities goal of the United Nations.

Keywords

pedestrian zones --- well-being --- viable city --- residents’ views --- green infrastructure --- Greece --- biophilic urbanism --- vacant land --- street verges --- spontaneous vegetation --- postal questionnaire --- Asia --- Japan --- recreation --- urban sustainability --- landscape urbanism --- green gentrification --- Soviet-era housing blocks --- deprived areas --- Roma minority --- built environment --- urban design --- regenerative design --- sustainable development --- river restoration --- biophilic urbanism --- green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) --- social equity --- site suitability modeling --- geographic information systems --- environmental justice --- urban planning --- Philadelphia --- urban design --- landscape first --- post-postmodernism --- landscape history --- urban ecology --- plant ecology --- context-sensitive design --- landscape theory --- urban geography --- nature-based solution --- floating treatment wetland --- pollutant removal --- runoff --- biophilic design --- green infrastructure --- Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) --- public open space --- re-naturing cities --- urban nature --- visitor satisfaction survey --- resource rationalization --- biophilic design --- public amenity --- public green infrastructure (PGI) --- public open space --- renaturing cities --- sustainable development --- livability --- liveability --- urban nature (UN) --- well-being --- built environment --- nature-based solutions --- sustainable cities --- biophilic design --- urban planning --- landscape architecture --- environmental justice --- public perception --- well-being

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management

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ISBN: 9783039281862 9783039281879 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-187-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Nowadays, the sustainable built environment planning in most cities has come to a turning point as the growth in traffic and population has become a serious concern and put tremendous pressure on both the environment and people in these cities. It is therefore important to find new ways or lifestyles—such as compact city, transit-oriented development (TOD) formulations—that are more flexible, inclusive, and sustainable. Furthermore, for the sustainable built environment and urban growth management, not only should the growth management principles—which include smart growth, sustainable growth, and inclusive growth—be taken into account but innovative/smart planning strategies—such as mixed use design, green transport, and new urbanism—are also utilized in planning sustainable built environments in order to prevent the urban sprawl development that has occurred.

Keywords

construction materials --- green supply chain --- integrated carbon policy --- interactive strategy --- low carbon --- CO2 emissions --- transport --- urban block --- urban design --- ecological well-being changes --- rural-urban land conversion --- transformation factors --- urban residents --- rural residents --- China --- renovation extent --- energy retrofitting --- rent affordability --- tenure --- energy performance certificate --- decision support --- embodied environmental impact --- apartment building --- major building material --- life-cycle assessment --- place attachment --- commercial types --- commercial activities --- social bonding --- physical activities --- resilience quantification --- resilience engineering --- multiple threat assessment --- urban form --- Maximum Likelihood Classification --- Support Vector Machines --- Artificial Neural Networks --- significant transitions --- urban growth --- Nayarit (Mexico) --- behavior --- built environment --- green tourism --- intention --- sustainability --- environmentally responsible interior design --- sustainable interior design --- environmental activation of interior elements --- indoor environment quality --- resource use --- energy use --- interior space utilization --- buildings --- sharing --- digitalization --- social performance --- social performance evaluation --- fuzzy analytical hierarchy process --- empirical study --- driving factors --- farmland price-value distortion --- GIS --- price:value ratio --- quantile regression --- spatial spectrum --- green belt --- urban growth --- land cover --- urban living environment --- climate change --- surface temperature --- air quality --- atmospheric concentration --- conservation --- sustainable use --- urban growth management --- sustainable built environment --- quality of life (QoL) --- smart city &amp --- big data

Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages Research: Rethinking

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039282180 9783039282197 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-219-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Over the last years, sophisticated policy making propositions for sustainable rural and urban development have been recorded. The smart village and smart city concepts promote a human-centric vision for a new era of technology-driven social innovation. This Special Issue offers a useful overview of the most recent developments in the frequently overlapping fields of smart city and smart village research. A variety of topics including well-being, happiness, security, open democracy, open government, smart education, smart innovation, and migration have been addressed in this Special Issue. They define the direction for future research in both domains. The organization of the relevant debate is aligned around three pillars: Section A: Sustainable Smart City and Smart Village Research: Foundations • Clustering Smart City Services: Perceptions, Expectations, and Responses • Smart City Development and Residents’ Well-Being • Analysis of Social Networking Service Data for Smart Urban Planning Section B: Sustainable Smart City and Smart Village Research: Case Studies on Rethinking Security, Safety, Well-being, and Happiness • Exploring a Stakeholder-Based Urban Densification and Greening Agenda for Rotterdam Inner City—Accelerating the Transition to a Liveable Low Carbon City • The Impact of the Comprehensive Rural Village Development Program on Rural Sustainability in Korea • Analyzing the Level of Accessibility of Public Urban Green Spaces to Different Socially Vulnerable Groups of People • Consumers’ Preference and Factors Influencing Offal Consumption in the Amathole District Eastern Cape, South Africa • Sustainable Tourism: A Hidden Theory of the Cinematic Image? A Theoretical and Visual Analysis of the Way of St. James • Future Development of Taiwan’s Smart Cities from an Information Security Perspective • Towards a Smart and Sustainable City with the Involvement of Public Participation—The Case of Wroclaw Section C: Sustainable Smart City and Smart Village Research: Technical Issues • Detection and Localization of Water Leaks in Water Nets Supported by an ICT System with Artificial Intelligence Methods as a Way Forward for Smart Cities • A Study of the Public Landscape Order of Xinye Village • Spatio-Temporal Changes and Dependencies of Land Prices: A Case Study of the City of Olomouc • Geographical Assessment of Low-Carbon Transportation Modes: A Case Study from a Commuter University • Performance Analysis of a Polling-Based Access Control Combined with the Sleeping Schema in V2I VANETs for Smart Cities.

Keywords

synergetic urban landscape planning --- low carbon cities --- densification --- liveability --- greening --- sustainable urban development --- urban planning --- policy evaluation --- sustainable rural policy --- spatial econometrics model --- decomposition method --- South Korea --- low-carbon transportation --- walk --- bike --- transit --- built-environment --- perceptions --- UNCG --- Greensboro --- North Carolina --- offal --- consumers --- perception --- consumption --- meat quality --- purchase-point --- pilgrimage and religion tourism --- sustainable pilgrimage tourism --- moviescapes --- the Way of St. James --- Accessibility --- urban green space --- social demand index --- surface temperature --- smart city --- ecological wellbeing --- population density --- small-sized community --- sustainable urban management --- spatial equity --- urban planning --- smart city --- information security --- cloud computation security --- big data information security --- Internet of things information security --- Smart Cities --- social networks --- ambient behavioral analysis --- urban planning --- decision making --- sustainability --- accessibility --- land price map --- land-use development --- geographic information system --- spatio-temporal changes --- sustainability --- Olomouc --- city sustainable development --- smart city implementation concept --- residents’ participation --- participatory budgeting --- Wroclaw 1998–2018 --- smart cities --- ICTS --- energy efficiency --- polling control --- probability generating function --- vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANETs) --- vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) --- water supply networks --- network modelling --- leak detection --- artificial neural networks --- settlement --- culture --- public landscape --- landscape order --- Xinye Village --- smart city --- usefulness experience --- safety experience --- convenience experience --- SWB --- smart cities --- information and communication technologies --- technology clusters --- innovation transfer --- sustainability --- analytics --- ICTs --- policy making --- smart cities --- smart villages --- smart urban applications --- data mining --- analytics --- cloud computing and open source technologies --- sustainability --- entrepreneurship --- economic growth --- international migration --- forced migration --- smart technologies --- ICT --- open democracy --- open government --- smart education --- smart innovation

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