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Energy and Seismic Renovation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

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ISBN: 9783038979449 9783038979456 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-945-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 09:16:44
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The principle of sustainability should be strictly connected with safety, since both aim to conserve resources: in the case of sustainability, the resources are typically thought of as environmental, while in the case of safety, the resources are basically human. In spite of this common ground, discussions on sustainability usually give insufficient attention to safety. In the last years the EU has made large investments to increase the energy efficiency of the existing building stock, paving the way for a low-carbon future; however, less effort has been made to enhance its seismic resilience. Therefore, the safety and, consequently, the sustainability of towns situated in earthquake-prone countries remain inadequate. In such countries, energy renovation actions should be combined with seismic retrofitting. However, a number of barriers considerably limit the real possibility of extensively undertaking combined retrofit actions, especially for multi-owner housing and high-rise buildings. These barriers are of different kinds: technical (e.g., unfeasibility and/or ineffectiveness of conventional retrofit solutions), financial (e.g., high renovation costs, insufficient incentives/subsidies), organizational (e.g., occupants’ disruption and relocation, renovation consensus by condominium ownerships), and cultural/social (insufficient information and skills, lack of adequate policy measures for promoting renovation actions). This book aims to overcome these barriers and to bridge the gap between sustainability and safety, so to conserve both human and environmental resources.

Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Energy Performance Assessment

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ISBN: 9783039219261 9783039219278 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-927-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The building industry is influenced by many factors and trends reflecting the current situation and developments in social, economic, technical, and scientific fields. One of the most important trends seeks to minimize the energy demand. This can be achieved by promoting the construction of buildings with better thermal insulating capabilities of their envelopes and better efficiency in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Any credible assessment of building energy performance includes the identification and simulation of heat and mass transfer phenomena in both the building envelope and the interior of the building. As the interaction between design elements, climate change, user behavior, heating effectiveness, ventilation, air conditioning systems, and lighting is not straightforward, the assessment procedure can present a complex and challenging task. The simulations should then involve all factors affecting the energy performance of the building in questions. However, the appropriate choice of physical model of heat and mass transfer for different building elements is not the only factor affecting the output of building energy simulations. The accuracy of the material parameters applied in the models as input data is another potential source of uncertainty. For instance, neglecting the dependence of hygric and thermal parameters on moisture content may affect the energy assessment in a significant way. Boundary conditions in the form of weather data sets represent yet another crucial factor determining the uncertainty of the outputs. In light of recent trends in climate change, this topic is vitally important. This Special Issue aims at providing recent developments in laboratory analyses, computational modeling, and in situ measurements related to the assessment of building energy performance based on the proper identification of heat and mass transfer processes in building structures.

Building Thermal Envelope

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ISBN: 9783039285181 9783039285198 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-519-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book results from a Special Issue published in Energies, entitled “Building Thermal Envelope"". Its intent is to identify emerging research areas within the field of building thermal envelope solutions and contribute to the increased use of more energy-efficient solutions in new and refurbished buildings. Its contents are organized in the following sections: Building envelope materials and systems envisaging indoor comfort and energy efficiency; Building thermal and energy modelling and simulation; Lab test procedures and methods of field measurement to assess the performance of materials and building solutions; Smart materials and renewable energy in building envelope; Adaptive and intelligent building envelope; and Integrated building envelope technologies for high performance buildings and cities.

Keywords

hybrid heat collecting facade (HHCF) --- passive solar building --- heat transfer model --- thermal performance --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- thermal resistance --- thermal transmittance --- heat flow meter method --- average method --- convergence characteristics --- opaque exterior wall --- hot box --- thermal models --- measuring and control system --- digital temperature probes --- data post-processing --- roof window --- thermal performance --- passive building --- building component development --- natural ventilation --- air environment --- school restroom --- awning window --- CFD --- thermal anisotropy --- building envelope --- thermal management --- energy efficiency --- peak load reduction --- window thermal performance --- U-value --- window type --- simulation performance test --- actual physical performance test --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- expanded polystyrene (EPS) --- gray polystyrene --- artificial sun --- thermographic measurement --- temperature distribution --- cork --- energy retrofitting --- life cycle assessment --- life cycle costs --- thermal insulating rendering mortar --- Building Information Modeling --- cloud-based --- envelope thermal performance --- green buildings --- Green Mark --- Integrated Digital Delivery (IDD) --- traditional Diyarbak?r houses --- courtyard --- settlement --- Designbuilder simulation --- energy performance --- n/a

Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling

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ISBN: 9783038978060 9783038978077 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-807-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book contains twenty-one original papers and one review paper published by internationally recognized experts in the Atmosphere Special Issue ""Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling"", years 2017–2019. The Special Issue includes contributions on recent experimental and modelling works, techniques, and developments mainly tailored to the assessment of urban ventilation on flow and pollutant dispersion in cities. The study of ventilation is of critical importance, as it addresses the capacity with which a built urban structure is capable of replacing the polluted air with ambient fresh air. Here, ventilation is recognized as a transport process that improves local microclimate and air quality and closely relates to the term “breathability”. The efficiency with which street canyon ventilation occurs depends on the complex interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer flow and the local urban morphology.The individual contributions to this Issue are summarized and categorized into four broad topics: (1) outdoor ventilation efficiency and application/development of ventilation indices, (2) relationship between indoor and outdoor ventilation, (3) effects of urban morphology and obstacles to ventilation, and (4) ventilation modelling in realistic urban districts. The results and approaches presented and proposed will be of great interest to experimentalists and modelers, and may constitute a starting point for the improvement of numerical simulations of flow and pollutant dispersion in the urban environment, for the development of simulation tools, and for the implementation of mitigation strategies.

Keywords

street canyon --- seasonal variation --- air flow --- pollutant dispersion --- pollutant removal --- natural ventilation --- residential wind environments --- building arrangements --- space pattern --- ventilation efficiency --- CFD simulation --- air change rate (ACH) --- flow and turbulence profiles --- hypothetical urban areas --- street-level ventilation --- ventilation assessment --- wind-tunnel dataset --- street vegetation --- CFD --- aerodynamic and deposition --- tree scenarios --- urban planning --- indoor-outdoor --- mass concentration --- nanoparticles --- particle number concentration (PNC) --- PM10 --- PM2.5 --- sampling --- Total Suspended Particles (TSP) --- ultrafine particles (UFP) --- urban street canyon --- wind enhancement --- architectural intervention --- water channel experiment --- CFD simulation --- passive ventilation --- street canyon --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- ventilation effectiveness --- the age of air --- convective boundary layer --- LES --- street-level ventilation --- small open space --- air change rate per hour (ACH) --- concentration decay method --- urban age of air --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation --- natural ventilation --- residential building --- climate zone --- thermal comfort --- natural ventilation hour --- Japan cities --- building energy use --- inter-building effect --- highly-reflective building envelope --- BEopt analysis --- source apportionment --- data assimilation --- urban air quality modelling --- wind environment --- Natural Ventilation Potential (NVP) --- PM2.5 --- building–tree grouping patterns --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- LES --- ventilation --- urban planning --- dispersion --- air quality --- street canyon --- traffic tidal flow --- numerical simulation --- vehicular pollution --- non-uniform distribution of the pollution source --- on-road air quality --- traffic composition --- high emitting vehicles --- street canyon --- mobile laboratory --- CFD model --- heat loss --- optimisation --- residential building --- air quality --- carbon dioxide concentration --- ventilation system --- wind pressure coefficient --- airflow network --- multiple linear regression --- natural ventilation --- urban layout --- surrogate model --- schematic urban environment --- wind tunnel --- LES --- validation --- street canyon --- coherent structures --- road tunnel --- natural ventilation --- wind catcher --- intake fraction --- street canyon --- CFD --- Large Eddy Simulation (LES) --- urban air quality --- pedestrian exposure --- concentration fluctuation --- outdoor ventilation --- urban morphology --- building site coverage --- ventilation efficiency --- n/a

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (4)


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CC by-nc-nd (4)


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english (4)


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2020 (1)

2019 (3)