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Nutrients in Infancy

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ISBN: 9783038425601 9783038425618 Year: Pages: XII, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 13:02:46
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Infants are not just small adults; they have a complex set of nutrient requirements and interactions to account for the high metabolic rate, growth, immunological and cognitive development, etc. Each year there are 138 million births, including 30 million from the least developed countries, where health is most at risk. Nutrition during infancy establishes growth patterns and development which moderate short term and long term health and life expectancy. There is continuing progress in understanding the nutrient composition of breastmilk and the importance nutritious and timely complementary foods. Nutrients at particular risk in the first years of life are iron, iodine, and vitamins A and D. There are still gaps in our knowledge on the influence of maternal diet, body composition and nutritional status on breastmilk nutrients. Interaction of nutrients with the human microbiome and gastro-intestinal tract hormonal secretion are developing fields. While breastmilk remains the “gold standard of pediatric nutrition”, the provisions of nutrients providing for optimal health in infant formulae, including nutrients and probiotics remains an area of research. The assessment of body composition for research and clinical practice has progressed rapidly and is important in understanding later obesity. After six months of age, there are new issues of the interaction of weaning foods and later family foods with the maturing gastro-intestinal tract to promote health and growth. Infant nutrition is made more difficult (and interesting) by the many cultural beliefs related to feeding practices. Developments in all of these fields of research into pediatric nutrition will be explored in this special issue together with state of the art reviews.

Paediatric Nutrition

ISBN: 9783906980508 9783906980515 Year: Pages: 348 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:45:51
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Food and nutrition has been central to human culture, philosophy and science since the beginning of civilisation. However the building blocks of food and nutrition, the nutrients, remained unknown until the late 19th century. Over the next 100 years advances in physics, chemistry and physiology led to rapid developments in our knowledge, first with development of an understanding of energy and the macronutrients, followed by the minerals and vitamins. The first vitamins to be explored scientifically were thiamine, vitamin D and C and in 1935 ascorbic acid was synthesised, beginning the 20th century rapid development of knowledge of nutrients[1]. [...]

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979302 / 9783038979319 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

Keywords

human milk --- breastfed infants --- body composition --- anthropometrics --- milk intake --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- maternal factors --- infant --- feeding --- preterm --- premature --- bottle --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- nipple shield --- infant feeding --- choline --- phosphocholine --- glycerophosphocholine --- lactation --- human milk --- infants --- adequate intake --- dietary recommendations --- Canada --- Cambodia --- breast milk --- galactogogues --- mothers of preterm infants --- breastfeeding --- attitudes --- knowledge --- midwifery --- formula supplementation --- justification of supplementation --- maternal wellbeing --- maternal distress --- post-partum distress --- breastfeeding support --- paternal role --- partner support --- infant --- Ireland --- passive immunity --- antibodies --- lactation --- peptidomics --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- preterm infant --- enteral nutrition --- lipids --- omega-3 fatty acids --- omega-6 fatty acids --- Docosahexaenoic acid --- Arachidonic acid --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- pregnancy --- breast milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- zinc deficiency --- plasma zinc --- lactating women --- zinc supplementation --- Quito --- Ecuador --- Andean region --- GDM --- lactation --- thyroid --- triiodothyronine --- thyroxine --- thyroid antibodies --- breastfeeding --- knowledge --- practice --- barriers --- social support --- professional support --- raw breast milk --- cytomegalovirus --- milk-acquired infections --- preterm infant --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- leptin --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- lactation --- human lactation --- expressing --- milk synthesis --- fat synthesis --- human milk --- milk metabolites --- lactation --- milk metabolomics --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- lipids --- lipidomics --- mass spectrometry --- chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- human milk --- sex-specificity --- infant growth --- early life nutrition --- postnatal outcomes --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- human milk --- colostrum --- IgA --- HGF --- TGF-? --- growth factors --- geographical location --- human milk --- potassium --- sodium --- ICP-OES --- ion selective electrode --- lactoferrin --- human milk --- infection --- immunity --- antisecretory factor --- human milk --- breast milk --- breastfeeding --- inflammation --- lactoferrin --- candida --- human milk --- milk cells --- immune cells --- antimicrobial proteins --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- ethnicity --- composition --- diet --- responsive feeding --- breastfeeding --- breastmilk --- babywearing --- co-sleeping --- mother–infant interaction --- feeding cues --- maternal responsiveness --- mother–infant physical contact --- proximal care --- fatty acids --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- endocannabinoids --- infant health --- breast milk --- casein --- whey --- protein --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- calculated daily intakes --- lactation --- human milk --- metabolites --- microbiome --- mode of delivery --- caesarean section --- proton nuclear magnetic resonance --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- body composition --- maternal diet --- infant growth --- appetite regulation --- N-acylethanolamines --- OEA --- SEA --- PEA --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- obesity --- Breastfeeding --- human lactation --- lactation --- human milk --- breast milk --- milk composition

Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation

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ISBN: 9783038978404 9783038978411 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-841-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Optimal nutrition is important during pregnancy and lactation for the health of both the mother and infant. Chronic deficiencies of both macronutrients and micronutrients are well established in developing countries. Although in developed countries overconsumption of macronutrients is a major issue, micronutrient deficiencies which occur concomitantly are no less of a concern. Furthermore in developed countries there is also the risk of excessive micronutrient intake from dietary supplements. Micronutrients have a role in fetal and neonatal health and also health in later life. Micronutrient deficiency or toxicity during pregnancy or early life can permanently affect developing tissues, resulting in adverse growth and development of the infant which is associated with chronic diseases in adulthood. An aberrant micronutrient intake during pregnancy or lactation can also have detrimental effect on the mother both in the neonatal period and in later life.

Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Implications for Maternal and Infant Health

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ISBN: 9783039280544 / 9783039280551 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-055-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Pregnancy is a viewed as a window to future health. With the birth of the developmental origins of human adult disease hypothesis, research and clinical practice has turned its attention to the influence of maternal factors such as health and lifestyle surrounding pregnancy as a means to understand and prevent the inter-generational inheritance of chronic disease susceptibility. Outcomes during pregnancy have long-lasting impacts on both women on children. Moreover, nutrition early in life can influence growth and the establishment of lifelong eating habits and behaviors. This Special Issue on “Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation: Implications for Maternal and Infant Health” is intended to highlight new epidemiological, mechanistic and interventional studies that investigate maternal nutrition around the pregnancy period on maternal and infant outcomes. Submissions may include original research, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Keywords

milk oligosaccharides --- infant formula --- 6?-sialyllactose --- cognitive development --- sialic acid --- maternal nutrition --- breast milk --- premature delivery --- milk composition --- nutritional intervention --- pregnant women --- overweight --- obesity --- total sugars --- energy --- vitamin B12 --- micronutrients --- pregnancy --- adolescents --- folate --- growth chart --- breastfeeding --- physiological body-weight loss --- thermal control --- basal maintenance expenditure --- maternal diet quality --- pregnancy --- lactation --- infancy --- growth --- body composition --- early programming --- hepatic lipogenesis --- insulin-resistant pregnancy --- metabolic flexibility --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- slow digesting carbohydrates --- pregnancy --- gestational weight gain intervention --- eating behavior --- restraint --- disinhibition --- uncontrolled and emotional eating --- fetal growth --- overweight and obesity --- generalized linear models --- passive immunization --- antibodies --- lactation --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- full breastfeeding --- postpartum --- weight retention --- obesity --- prenatal intervention --- meal replacements --- randomized clinical trial --- lifestyle intervention --- obesity --- RDA --- micronutrients --- hippocampus --- DNA methylation --- DNA sequencing --- iron --- neurobiology --- transcriptome --- micronutrient deficiency --- neuroplasticity --- maternal obesity --- gestational weight gain --- immunological properties --- human milk --- nutrition --- health --- Pregnancy --- obesity --- diet quality --- Healthy Eating Index --- food cravings --- mindful eating --- education --- race --- food photography --- pregnancy --- energy expenditure --- energy intake --- physical activity --- metabolic rate --- fetal development

Implementing Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Practice

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ISBN: 9783038977629 / 9783038977636 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-763-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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This Special Issue provides an overview of pediatric integrative medicine, an emerging field that blends conventional and evidence based complementary therapies with an emphasis on preventive health and wellbeing.

Keywords

burnout --- pediatrics --- residents --- preventive lifestyle behaviors --- resilience --- headache --- migraine --- integrative medicine --- complementary therapies --- pediatric --- mind-body --- clinic model --- multidisciplinary --- implementation --- mindful eating --- obesity --- adolescents --- Kneipp --- kindergarten --- PIMR --- pediatric integrative nursing --- program development --- pediatric blood and marrow transplant --- integrative medicine --- hypnosis --- mindfulness --- biofeedback --- acupuncture --- yoga --- guided imagery --- self-regulation --- complementary --- education --- pediatric integrative medicine --- vision --- clinical practice --- education --- advocacy --- complementary therapies --- qualitative --- mindfulness --- meditation --- chronic illness --- adolescents --- eHealth --- integrative medicine --- pediatrics --- clinical practice --- n/a --- infant --- premature --- pain --- acupuncture --- skin-to-skin contact --- sucrose --- massage --- musical therapy --- breastfeeding --- Integrative therapies --- art therapy --- music therapy --- yoga therapy --- acupuncture --- pastoral care --- creative arts therapy --- pediatrics --- opioid therapy --- weaning of opioids --- withdrawal --- assessment of withdrawal --- pediatric --- integrative medicine --- academic medicine --- multidisciplinary pain management strategies --- opioid reduction therapy --- non-pharmacological therapy --- cognitive behavioral therapy --- hypnosis --- mindfulness-based stress reduction --- acupuncture --- pain rehabilitation

Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211203 / 9783039211210 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-121-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Food insecurity is a complex ‘wicked’ problem that results from a range of unstable and uncertain physical, social, cultural and economic factors that limits access to nutritious food. Globally, 800 million people are under-nourished, and around 2 billion are overweight/obese or have micronutrient deficiency. These populations are largely positioned in developing countries where disease burden is high and impacts health budgets and productivity. Similarly developed countries, cities and neighbourhoods are experiencing a greater emergence of vulnerable populations. This is in part explained by the change in the food production and manufacturing, the retraction in economic climates, the increase in food price, and in some regions reduced food availability and access.Vulnerable groups include but are not limited to migrant populations, Indigenous people, elderly, pregnant women, those with disability, homeless, young children and youth. Poor nutrition at significant periods of growth and development and during life impact long term health outcomes increasing non-communicable disease prevalence, health cost and reducing economic productivity.

Keywords

breastfeeding --- feeding practices --- infant feeding --- nutrition --- malnutrition --- pediatrics --- primary health care --- low-income population --- popular restaurant --- lunch --- energy density --- nutrition --- food security --- HFIAS --- double burden of malnutrition --- child stunting --- Indonesia --- emergency food assistance --- food pantry --- food insecurity --- dietary patterns --- dietary quality --- nutrition --- knowledge --- refugees --- children --- school intervention --- Lebanon --- rural populations --- food assistance --- low-income --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- socioeconomics --- Obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- refugee --- women --- Palestine --- consumption of fruits and vegetables --- low-income undergraduate students --- Student Assistance Program --- adiposity markers --- obesity --- fat mass --- abdominal obesity --- adolescent health --- school performance --- Orang Asli --- food insecurity --- Malaysia --- challenges --- in-depth interview --- fruit and vegetables --- rural children --- Social Cognitive Theory --- undernutrition --- food security --- nutrition security --- village chickens --- livestock --- animal-source food --- Tanzania --- sub-Saharan Africa --- resource-poor settings --- children --- welfare home --- body image --- obesity --- BMI-for-age --- food security --- self-esteem --- self-efficacy --- food security --- public health --- place-based --- co-design --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- charitable food sector --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- nutrition education --- training --- tertiary education --- n/a

The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health

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ISBN: 9783039219964 / 9783039219971 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-997-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In pregnancy, maternal nutrition sustains and nourishes the developing child. Imbalances in either the direction of nutritional excess or deficiency can have adverse consequences for child health. In addition, more research now suggests that good pregnancy nutrition influences child health beyond pregnancy and delivery. This includes modifying the risk of child health outcomes as they enter childhood and adulthood through influences on placental development, hormonal pathways, and organ structure and function. Poor pregnancy nutrition may also compromise maternal health during pregnancy, which may have long-term consequences for women’s health. Understanding the biological and social mechanisms operating during pregnancy can help in the design of better clinical and public health interventions. This Special Issue on “The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health” includes etiological and mechanistic studies of pregnancy nutrition with short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes, including original research, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Together, this body of work provides important insights into the influence of dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients on pregnancy outcomes, and long-term neurodevelopmental, respiratory, and metabolic health in the children. It also highlights nutritional consequences for specific groups of women, including those with pregnancy complications and eating disorders.

Keywords

Obesity --- chronic kidney disease --- foetal programming --- sirtuin --- choline --- Dlx3 --- placenta --- placental insufficiency --- inflammation --- angiogenesis --- apoptosis --- Iodine --- pregnancy --- birth weight --- Insufficiency --- SGA --- preterm Birth --- nutrition --- diet --- vitamin D --- birthweight --- birth length --- head circumference --- gestational age --- pregnancy outcomes --- vegetarian diets --- vegan diets --- plant-based diets --- nutrition --- pregnancy --- breastfeeding --- human milk --- micronutrients --- fetal development --- fatty fish --- essential fatty acids --- omega-3 --- pregnancy --- birth weight --- foetal growth --- preterm birth --- anorexia nervosa --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- diet --- eating behavior --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- pregnancy --- purging --- asthma --- fortification --- vitamin D --- social experiment --- pregnancy --- lactation --- weaning --- food-related IgG --- food clusters --- non-IgE-mediated food reactions --- maternal nutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- offspring health --- DHA --- gestational diabetes --- preeclampsia --- placental transport --- choline --- pregnancy --- infant nutrition --- brain health --- docosahexaenoic acid --- DHA --- eye function --- ghrelin --- hypothalamic inflammation --- microglia --- nutritional programing --- pregnancy nutrition --- neurodevelopmental disorders --- autism spectrum disorder --- attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity --- developmental origins of health and disease --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- preterm birth --- preterm labor --- etiology --- nutrition --- DHA --- probiotics --- dietary habits --- maternal nutrition --- gestational diabetes --- food frequency questionnaire --- dietary screening --- lifestyle intervention --- pregnancy --- dietary behaviour --- neonatal outcomes --- birth weight --- large for gestational age (LGA) --- small for gestational age (SGA) --- obesity prevention --- immunomodulators --- maternal nutrition --- pregnancy --- Rhodiola --- Echinacea --- Panax --- Camellia

Carotenoids and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218325 / 9783039218332 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-833-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of approximately 600 compounds synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These pigments are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain animal products such as eggs and salmon, being responsible for their colorful appearance. The bioactive properties of certain carotenoids in human health are clear, as some of these compounds have antioxidant properties and serve as the only precursors of vitamin A in nature. The aim of this Special Issue entitled “Carotenoids and Human Health” is to provide the scientific community with an updated perspective of this exciting and growing research area. We compiled 19 papers from some of the most prominent scientists in the carotenoid field, including seven literature reviews and 12 original publication, covering topics such as cancer, obesity, vision, cognitive function, and skin health.

Keywords

carotenoids --- lycopene --- gastric cancer --- H. pylori --- smoking --- case-control study --- Korea --- cancer-related cognitive impairment --- cognition --- carotenoid --- memory --- inflammation --- mango by-products --- lutein --- ?-carotene --- ?-tocopherol --- mangiferin --- food ingredients --- astaxanthin --- Akkermansia --- alcoholic fatty liver disease --- inflammation --- gut microbiota --- lycopene --- carotene --- retinoic acid --- retinoid --- vitamin A --- RAR --- RXR --- ?-carotene --- ?-carotene --- ?-cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- lutein --- provitamin A --- retinol --- vitamin A --- breastfeeding --- new-born --- full-term mothers --- preterm mothers --- xanthophylls --- carotenes --- lutein --- colostrum --- mature milk --- ?-Cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- Caenorhabditis elegans --- fat reduction --- oxidative stress --- transcriptomic analysis --- metabolic syndrome --- aging --- prostate cancer --- tomato --- lycopene --- androgen --- cell culture --- animal --- obesity --- hippocampus --- nutrition --- overweight --- carotenoids --- Phaeodactylum tricornutum --- microalgae --- fucoxanthin --- eicosapentanoic acid --- obesity --- browning --- brown adipose tissue --- carotenes --- xanthophylls --- bioavailability --- intestine --- membrane transporters --- Vitamin A --- adipocyte --- ?-carotene oxygenase 1 --- hypertension --- carotenoids --- tomato extract --- lycopene --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- bioavailability --- glaucoma --- antioxidants --- oxidative stress --- macular pigment --- lutein --- colourless carotenoids --- cosmeceuticals --- functional foods --- nutraceuticals --- nutricosmetics --- photoprotection --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- public health --- nutrition --- chronic disease --- lutein --- zeaxanthin --- lycopene --- beta-carotene --- alpha-carotene --- beta-cryptoxanthin --- adipocytes --- adipose tissue --- brain --- carotenoids --- obesity --- retinoids --- carotenoids --- bioactive compounds

Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216000 / 9783039216017 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-601-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new information on the existing research elucidating important aspects of children’s and adolescents’ nutrition and lifestyle behavior. The data included in this Special Issue are from large epidemiological studies, including several multicenter and multinational studies, as well as datasets from surveillance initiatives. The topics of interest of this Special Issue include the co-occurrence of multiple health behaviors in children, the role of parenting and early feeding practices, dairy consumption in childhood, validity of dietary intake data, dietary supplement use in children, as well as socioeconomic disparities and eating culture. The diverse articles in this Special Issue highlight the complexity and extent to which nutrition and physical activity behaviors may influence different health aspects of children and adolescents. As seen by the various findings and recommendations, not only is more work in this area required but the translation of this work to practice and policy is imperative if we are to address the challenges impacting the nutrition, physical activity, and health of young populations.

Keywords

diet --- inflammation --- children’s-dietary inflammatory index --- body composition --- primary school --- dietary pattern --- principal component analysis --- reduced rank regression --- prevention --- validation study --- dietary assessment methods --- food diary --- cross-classification --- children --- whole diet --- preschool --- DAGIS Study --- diet quality --- PANDiet index --- early childhood --- nutritional adequacy --- nutrient intake quality --- growing up milk --- eating behaviour --- psychological eating style --- negative emotions --- Emotion-Induced Eating Scale --- health behaviour --- BMI --- home food environment --- Healthy Eating Index --- dietary quality --- validation --- psychometric --- consumption behavior --- knowledge --- Melanesian --- Pacific --- physical activity --- sugar-sweetened beverage --- noncommunicable diseases --- weight status --- self-weight perception --- cluster analysis --- energy balance-related behaviors --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- screen time --- dietary intake --- overweight --- obesity --- children --- family meals --- food parenting practices --- preschoolers --- nutrition risk --- direct observation --- adolescents --- children --- determinants --- dietary supplements --- food choice --- intervention --- nutrition --- preschool --- child --- parent --- dairy --- calcium --- migration status --- dietary habits --- food frequency questionnaire --- socioeconomic disparities --- adolescents --- pediatric --- overweight --- epidemiological transition --- collaboration --- childhood obesity --- CEBQ --- eating behavior and Ile251Leu --- breakfast --- obesity --- cardiovascular --- health --- BMI --- waist circumference --- cholesterol --- blood pressure --- MyHeARTs --- breastfeeding --- formula milk --- taste preference --- healthy diet adherence --- children --- IDEFICS study --- I.Family --- screen time --- physical activity --- preschool children --- food and beverage consumption --- Physical activity --- exercise --- food intake --- diet --- children --- adolescents --- KiGGS --- children --- mothers --- vegetable intake --- consumption behaviors --- choice --- preferences --- vitamin --- mineral --- dietary supplements --- adolescents --- EsKiMo --- dietary screener --- obesity prevention --- sweet preference --- children --- diet quality --- dietary behavior --- physical activity --- young populations --- surveillance --- epidemiology --- public health

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