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High-resolution analysis of the initiation of deep convection forced by boundary-layer processes

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 1795619 ISBN: 9783866447707 Year: Volume: 50 Pages: III, 197 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000024934 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The initiation of atmospheric convection is investigated using the synergy of different instruments. The impact of increased spatial data resolution on the detection of the initiation of deep convection is analysed, and a methodology is developed to determine the likelihood of deep convection over flat and complex terrains. Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are used from the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP), and the Convective and Orographically-Induced Precipitation Study (COPS).

Boundary-Layer Processes Producing Mesoscale Water-Vapour Variability over a Mountainous Island

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 1795619 ISBN: 9783731502470 Year: Volume: 67 Pages: 242 S DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000042282 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Over complex terrain, spatial inhomogeneities of pre-convective atmospheric conditions occur due to convection and mesoscale transport processes. This thesis focuses on the identification of these processes over the mountainous island of Corsica and on the evaluation of their impact on the spatial variability of water vapour, convection-related parameters and the evolution of deep convection by means of observations.

Optimizing Dual-Doppler Lidar Measurements of Surface Layer Coherent Structures with Large-Eddy Simulations

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 1795619 ISBN: 9783731501978 Year: Volume: 64 Pages: 234 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000039726 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Coherent structures are patterns in the wind field of the atmospheric boundary layer. The deployment of two scanning Doppler lidars facilitates the measurement of the horizontal wind field, but the inherent averaging processes complicate an interpretation of the results. To assess the suitability of this technique for coherent structure detection large-eddy simulations are used as a basis for virtual measurements, and the effects of the lidar technique on the wind field structure are analyzed.

Intermittency and Self-Organisation in Turbulence and Statistical Mechanics

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ISBN: 9783039211081 9783039211098 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-109-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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There is overwhelming evidence, from laboratory experiments, observations, and computational studies, that coherent structures can cause intermittent transport, dramatically enhancing transport. A proper description of this intermittent phenomenon, however, is extremely difficult, requiring a new non-perturbative theory, such as statistical description. Furthermore, multi-scale interactions are responsible for inevitably complex dynamics in strongly non-equilibrium systems, a proper understanding of which remains a main challenge in classical physics. As a remarkable consequence of multi-scale interaction, a quasi-equilibrium state (the so-called self-organisation) can however be maintained. This special issue aims to present different theories of statistical mechanics to understand this challenging multiscale problem in turbulence. The 14 contributions to this Special issue focus on the various aspects of intermittency, coherent structures, self-organisation, bifurcation and nonlocality. Given the ubiquity of turbulence, the contributions cover a broad range of systems covering laboratory fluids (channel flow, the Von Kármán flow), plasmas (magnetic fusion), laser cavity, wind turbine, air flow around a high-speed train, solar wind and industrial application.

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Conditions for Wind Energy Applications

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ISBN: 9783038979425 9783038979432 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-943-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue “Atmospheric Conditions for Wind Energy Applications” hosts papers on aspects of remote sensing for atmospheric conditions for wind energy applications. Wind lidar technology is presented from a theoretical view on the coherent focused Doppler lidar principles. Furthermore, wind lidar for applied use for wind turbine control, wind farm wake, and gust characterizations is presented, as well as methods to reduce uncertainty when using lidar in complex terrain. Wind lidar observations are used to validate numerical model results. Wind Doppler lidar mounted on aircraft used for observing winds in hurricane conditions and Doppler radar on the ground used for very short-term wind forecasting are presented. For the offshore environment, floating lidar data processing is presented as well as an experiment with wind-profiling lidar on a ferry for model validation. Assessments of wind resources in the coastal zone using wind-profiling lidar and global wind maps using satellite data are presented..

Keywords

detached eddy simulation --- turbulence --- Lidar --- range gate length --- wind energy resources --- QuikSCAT --- WindSAT --- ASCAT --- global ocean --- wind energy --- resource assessment --- power performance testing --- wind turbine controls --- complex flow --- Doppler lidar --- coherent Doppler lidar --- wind sensing --- single-particle --- wind gusts --- Doppler lidar --- detecting and tracking --- impact prediction --- wind energy --- atmospheric boundary layer --- wind turbine wake --- wind lidar --- turbulence --- wake modeling --- field experiments --- wind energy --- atmospheric boundary layer --- wind turbine wake --- wind lidar --- virtual lidar --- turbulence --- wake modeling --- large-eddy simulations --- tropical cyclones --- Doppler Wind Lidar --- atmospheric boundary layer --- wind structure --- wind energy --- Doppler lidar --- wind turbine controls --- lidar-assisted control (LAC) --- IEA Wind Task 32 --- coastal wind measurement --- vertical Light Detection and Ranging --- NeoWins --- fetch effect --- Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station --- empirical equation --- complex terrain --- complex flow --- lidar --- VAD --- remote sensing --- wind energy --- Doppler lidar --- NWP model --- mesoscale --- Floating Lidar System (FLS), wind resource assessment --- wind atlas --- lidar --- wind --- Doppler --- aerosol --- motion estimation --- optical flow --- cross-correlation --- wind energy --- gust prediction --- variational analysis --- Doppler radar --- five-minute ahead wind power forecasting --- probabilistic forecasting --- remote sensing forecasting --- offshore wind speed forecasting --- wind energy --- remote sensing --- Doppler wind lidar --- velocity-azimuth-display algorithm --- resource assessment --- offshore --- turbulence intensity --- Doppler wind lidar --- wind energy --- aerosol --- wind turbine --- wind farm --- wake --- control --- complex terrain --- offshore

Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

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ISBN: 9783039212293 9783039212309 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-230-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Since their discovery, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received tremendous attention due to their unique electrical, optical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Remarkable advances have been made in the synthesis, purification, structural characterization, functionalization, and application of MWCNTs. Their particular characteristics make them well suited for a plethora of applications in a number of fields, namely nanoelectronics, nanofluids, energy management, (electro)catalysis, materials science, construction of (bio)sensors based on different detection schemes, multifunctional nanoprobes for biomedical imaging, and sorbents for sample preparation or removal of contaminants from wastewater. They are also useful as anti-bacterial agents, drug delivery nanocarriers, etc. The current relevant application areas are countless. This Special Issue presents original research and review articles that address advances, trends, challenges, and future perspectives regarding synthetic routes, structural features, properties, behaviors, and industrial or scientific applications of MWCNTs in established and emerging areas.

Keywords

water based nanofluid --- carbon-nanotubes --- boundary layer --- heat generation --- thermal radiation --- curved stretching sheet --- numerical solution --- Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) --- Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) --- MHD --- Casson model --- stretching sheet --- non-linear thermal radiation --- HAM --- zeolitic imidazolate framework --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- magnetic solid phase extraction --- organochlorine pesticides --- agricultural irrigation water --- Pd-CNT nanohybrids --- functionalized CNTs --- polarity --- semi-homogeneous catalysis --- heck reaction --- nanomaterials --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- synthesis methods --- electrochemical properties --- electrochemical sensors --- electroanalysis --- sensing applications --- multiwalled carbon nanotubes --- gold(I) --- gold(III) --- adsorption --- elution --- gold nanoparticles --- adsorption --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- nonylphenol --- kinetics --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- graphene oxide --- cerium oxide --- lubricating oil additives --- multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) --- azide-alkyne click chemistry --- RAFT polymerization --- PMMA --- carbon nanotubes --- composites --- radar absorbing materials --- complex permittivity --- chloride diffusion --- cement mortars --- carbon nanotubes --- mechanical properties --- electrical properties --- hydrophobic drugs --- drug delivery --- functionalized carbon nanotubes --- dissolution rate --- nanomedicine --- polymeric composites --- silicone rubber --- Ionic liquid --- carbon materials --- structural --- EMI shielding --- n/a

Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

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ISBN: 9783039215249 9783039215256 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-525-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Wind turbine aerodynamics is one of the central subjects of wind turbine technology. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), the size of a single wind turbine has been increased to 12 MW at present, with further increases expected in the near future. Big wind turbines and their associated wind farms have many advantages but also challenges. The typical effects are mainly related to the increase in Reynolds number and blade flexibility. This Special Issue is a collection of 21 important research works addressing the aerodynamic challenges appearing in such developments. The 21 research papers cover a wide range of problems related to wind turbine aerodynamics, which includes atmospheric turbulent flow modeling, wind turbine flow modeling, wind turbine design, wind turbine control, wind farm flow modeling in complex terrain, wind turbine noise modeling, vertical axis wind turbine, and offshore wind energy. Readers from all over the globe are expected to greatly benefit from this Special Issue collection regarding their own work and the goal of enabling the technological development of new environmentally friendly and cost-effective wind energy systems in order to reach the target of 100% energy use from renewable sources, worldwide, by 2050

Keywords

H-type floating VAWT --- truss Spar floating foundation --- coupling of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics --- computational fluid dynamics --- wind farm --- complex terrain --- SCADA --- met mast measurements --- wind turbine --- simplified free vortex wake --- vortex ring --- aerodynamics --- axial steady condition --- variable pitch --- H-type VAWT --- straight blade --- DMST model --- NACA0012 --- wind energy --- power coefficient --- tip speed ratio --- wind turbine blade optimization --- computational fluid dynamic --- actuator disc --- wake effect --- Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) --- wind turbine airfoil --- dynamic stall --- boundary layer separation --- aerodynamic characteristics --- rotor blade optimization --- blade parametrization --- computational fluid dynamics --- OpenFOAM --- gradient-based --- adjoint approach --- wind turbine optimization --- low wind speed areas --- cost of energy --- particle swarm optimization --- dynamic stall --- pitch oscillation --- oscillating freestream --- rotational augmentation --- wind turbine --- turbulence --- super-statistics --- piezo-electric flow sensor --- ABL stability --- laminar-turbulent transition --- wind speed extrapolation --- atmospheric stability --- wind shear --- wind resource assessment --- wind turbine --- stall --- NREL Phase VI --- S809 airfoil --- MEXICO --- RANS --- wind turbine wakes --- turbulence --- actuator disk --- LES --- wind tunnel --- OpenFOAM --- wind turbine --- wind turbine design --- optimization --- blade length --- economic analysis --- typhoon --- wind turbine --- meso/microscale --- aerodynamic force --- mechanical performance --- thermography --- wind turbine blades --- defects --- image processing --- condition monitoring --- wind farm --- layout optimization --- design --- random search --- complex terrain --- airfoil design --- aerodynamic --- wind tunnel experiment --- VAWTs (Vertical axis wind turbines) --- computational fluid dynamics --- floating offshore wind turbine --- dynamic fluid body interaction --- semi-submersible platform --- OC5 DeepCWind --- wind turbine --- aerodynamics --- turbulent inflow --- Computational Fluid Dynamics --- blade element momentum theory --- actuator line method --- Fatigue Loads --- wind turbine noise source --- wind turbine noise propagation --- wind turbine wake --- n/a

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978060 9783038978077 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-807-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book contains twenty-one original papers and one review paper published by internationally recognized experts in the Atmosphere Special Issue ""Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling"", years 2017–2019. The Special Issue includes contributions on recent experimental and modelling works, techniques, and developments mainly tailored to the assessment of urban ventilation on flow and pollutant dispersion in cities. The study of ventilation is of critical importance, as it addresses the capacity with which a built urban structure is capable of replacing the polluted air with ambient fresh air. Here, ventilation is recognized as a transport process that improves local microclimate and air quality and closely relates to the term “breathability”. The efficiency with which street canyon ventilation occurs depends on the complex interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer flow and the local urban morphology.The individual contributions to this Issue are summarized and categorized into four broad topics: (1) outdoor ventilation efficiency and application/development of ventilation indices, (2) relationship between indoor and outdoor ventilation, (3) effects of urban morphology and obstacles to ventilation, and (4) ventilation modelling in realistic urban districts. The results and approaches presented and proposed will be of great interest to experimentalists and modelers, and may constitute a starting point for the improvement of numerical simulations of flow and pollutant dispersion in the urban environment, for the development of simulation tools, and for the implementation of mitigation strategies.

Keywords

street canyon --- seasonal variation --- air flow --- pollutant dispersion --- pollutant removal --- natural ventilation --- residential wind environments --- building arrangements --- space pattern --- ventilation efficiency --- CFD simulation --- air change rate (ACH) --- flow and turbulence profiles --- hypothetical urban areas --- street-level ventilation --- ventilation assessment --- wind-tunnel dataset --- street vegetation --- CFD --- aerodynamic and deposition --- tree scenarios --- urban planning --- indoor-outdoor --- mass concentration --- nanoparticles --- particle number concentration (PNC) --- PM10 --- PM2.5 --- sampling --- Total Suspended Particles (TSP) --- ultrafine particles (UFP) --- urban street canyon --- wind enhancement --- architectural intervention --- water channel experiment --- CFD simulation --- passive ventilation --- street canyon --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- ventilation effectiveness --- the age of air --- convective boundary layer --- LES --- street-level ventilation --- small open space --- air change rate per hour (ACH) --- concentration decay method --- urban age of air --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation --- natural ventilation --- residential building --- climate zone --- thermal comfort --- natural ventilation hour --- Japan cities --- building energy use --- inter-building effect --- highly-reflective building envelope --- BEopt analysis --- source apportionment --- data assimilation --- urban air quality modelling --- wind environment --- Natural Ventilation Potential (NVP) --- PM2.5 --- building–tree grouping patterns --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- LES --- ventilation --- urban planning --- dispersion --- air quality --- street canyon --- traffic tidal flow --- numerical simulation --- vehicular pollution --- non-uniform distribution of the pollution source --- on-road air quality --- traffic composition --- high emitting vehicles --- street canyon --- mobile laboratory --- CFD model --- heat loss --- optimisation --- residential building --- air quality --- carbon dioxide concentration --- ventilation system --- wind pressure coefficient --- airflow network --- multiple linear regression --- natural ventilation --- urban layout --- surrogate model --- schematic urban environment --- wind tunnel --- LES --- validation --- street canyon --- coherent structures --- road tunnel --- natural ventilation --- wind catcher --- intake fraction --- street canyon --- CFD --- Large Eddy Simulation (LES) --- urban air quality --- pedestrian exposure --- concentration fluctuation --- outdoor ventilation --- urban morphology --- building site coverage --- ventilation efficiency --- n/a

Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

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