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The origin, function and diagnostic potential of extracellular microRNA in human body fluids

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192427 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-242-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Abstract

Short non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs), post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in living cells. In recent years, miRNAs have been found in a wide spectrum of mammalian body fluids including blood plasma, saliva, urine, milk, seminal plasma, tears and amniotic fluid as extracellular circulating nuclease-resistant entities. The changes in miRNA spectra observed in certain fluids correlated with various pathological conditions suggesting that extracellular miRNAs can serve as informative biomarkers for certain diseases including cancer. However, the mechanism of generation and a biological role of extracellular miRNAs remain unclear. The current theories regarding extracellular miRNA origin and function suggest that these miRNAs can be either non-specific 'by-products' of cellular activity and cell death or specifically released cell-cell signaling messengers. The goal of this Research Topic is to bring together up-to-date knowledge about the extracellular miRNA and its role in disease diagnostics and, possibly, inter-cellular communication.

Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

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