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Vitamin E

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ISBN: 9783038429050 9783038429067 Year: Pages: VIII, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-22 09:52:09
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Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant system and is exclusively obtained from the diet. In 1922, vitamin E was discovered as a dietary factor essential for reproduction in rats. Meanwhile, vitamin E has revealed many more important molecular properties, such as the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with consequent prevention of the oxidative damage associated with many diseases. In addition, the modulation of signal transduction and gene expression in antioxidant and non-antioxidant manners was shown for vitamin E.This Special Issue highlights some of the recent advances in vitamin E research, showing on the one hand the status quo and providing, on the other hand, new insights into functions and physiological relevance. Thus, the current knowledge of tocochromanol biosynthesis in plants and future challenges regarding the understanding of its regulation are presented. Another paper describes the fate of vitamin E in the human gastrointestinal lumen during digestion. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites 13’-hydroxychromanol and 13’-carboxychromanol are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. Their occurrence in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Another paper describes the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions of adult rhesus monkeys, also looking for associations between membrane α-tocopherol and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Fungal Pigments

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038427872 9783038427889 Year: Pages: VI, 134 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:14:38
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With the impact of globalization in research trends, the search for healthier life styles, the increasing public demand for natural, organic, and ‘clean labelled’ products, as well as the growing global market for natural colorants in economically fast-growing countries all over the world, filamentous fungi started to be investigated as readily available sources of chemically diverse pigments and colorants. For all of these reasons, this special issue of Journal of Fungi will highlight exciting findings, which may pave the way for alternative and/or additional biotechnological processes for industrial applications of fungal pigments and colorants. Research papers and reviews about the fungal biodiversity from terrestrial and marine origins are welcome, bringing new elements about fungi as potential sources of well-known carotenoid pigments (e.g. beta-carotene, lycopene) and other specific pigmented polyketide molecules, such as Monascus and Monascus-like azaphilones, which are yet not known to be biosynthesized by any other organisms like higher plants. These polyketide pigments also include promising, and unexplored hydroxy-anthraquinoid colorants from Ascomycetous species. The investigation of biosynthetic pathways of the carotenoids and polyketide-derivative colored molecules (i.e. azaphilones, hydroxyanthraquinones, and naphthoquinones) in pigment-producing fungal species could bring some articles. Contributions about alternative greener extraction processes of the fungal colored compounds, along with current industrial applications, description of their limits and further opportunities for the use of fungal pigments in beverage, food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and painting areas will also be part of this special issue.

Microbial Exopolysaccharides: From Genes to Applications

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198436 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-843-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Microbial polysaccharides represent an attractive alternative to those from plants or macro algae. They can be produced from renewable sources including lignocellulosic waste streams. Their production does not depend on geographical constraints and/or seasonal limitations. Additionally the manipulation of biosynthetic pathways to enhance productivity or to influence the chemi-cal polysaccharide composition is comparatively easy in bacteria. Microbial exopolysaccharides represents a valuable resource of biogenic and biodegradable polymers, suitable to replace petro based polymers in various technical applications. Furthermore, biocompatible exopolysaccha-rides are very attractive in medical applications, such as drug delivery systems, use as vaccines or nanoparticles. This research topic will depict the status quo, as well as the future needs in the field of EPS and biofilm research. Starting from the unexplored diversity of microbial polysaccharide producers to production processes and possibilities for modifications, to enhance the already high number of functionalities based on the chemical structures. An overview of the recent and future applications will be given, and the necessity in unravelling the biosynthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide producers is depicted, highlighting the future trend of tailor made polymers. Constraints in structure analysis of these highly complex biogenic polymers are described and different approaches to solve the restrictions in imaging and NMR analysis will be given. Therefore; this research topic comprises the whole process from genes to applications.

Engineering Synthetic Metabolons: From Metabolic Modelling to Rational Design of Biosynthetic Devices

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199211 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-921-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The discipline of Synthetic Biology has recently emerged at the interface of biology and engineering. The definition of Synthetic Biology has been dynamic over time ever since, which exemplifies that the field is rapidly moving and comprises a broad range of research areas. In the frame of this Research Topic, we focus on Synthetic Biology approaches that aim at rearranging biological parts/ entities in order to generate novel biochemical functions with inherent metabolic activity. This Research Topic encompasses Pathway Engineering in living systems as well as the in vitro assembly of biomolecules into nano- and microscale bioreactors. Both, the engineering of metabolic pathways in vivo, as well as the conceptualization of bioreactors in vitro, require rational design of assembled synthetic pathways and depend on careful selection of individual biological functions and their optimization. Mathematical modelling has proven to be a powerful tool in predicting metabolic flux in living and artificial systems, although modelling approaches have to cope with a limitation in experimentally verified, reliable input variables. This Research Topic puts special emphasis on the vital role of modelling approaches for Synthetic Biology, i.e. the predictive power of mathematical simulations for (i) the manipulation of existing pathways and (ii) the establishment of novel pathways in vivo as well as (iii) the translation of model predictions into the design of synthetic assemblies.

Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects

ISBN: 9783038420583 9783038420590 Year: Pages: 516 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:33:35
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Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. It is now clear that phytoalexins exhibit toxicity across much of the biological spectrum, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Starting in the 1950s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has also permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. This has led to potential applications for increasing plant resistance to diseases. Phytoalexins display an enormous diversity belonging to various chemical families such as isoflavones, isoflavanones, pterocarpans, isoflavans, flavanones, coumestans, furanoacetylenes, phenylpropanoids, steroid glycoalkaloids, norsesquiterpenoids/sesquiterpenoids, coumarins, diterpenes, ent-kaurane-related diterpenoids, acidic sesquiterpenoids, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, naphthaldehydes, indoles and stilbenes.Research papers dealing with all aspects of phytoalexins, including structure elucidation; chemical synthesis; methods for phytoalexin analysis in plant extracts or biological fluids; biosynthesis studies including modulation of phytoalexin synthesis; engineering of phytoalexin biochemical pathways in plants and microbes; biological activities; structure/activity relationships; phytoalexin metabolism in planta and by micro-organisms; roles and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters or Multi-Drugs Efflux (MDE) transporters are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules. Review articles, particularly those dealing with the themes mentioned above are also particularly welcome for inclusion.

Biological Networks

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ISBN: 9783038974338 / 9783038974345 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-434-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Internal medicine --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-10 11:14:23
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Networks of coordinated interactions among biological entities govern a myriad of biological functions that span a wide range of both length and time scales—from ecosystems to individual cells and from years to milliseconds. For these networks, the concept “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” applies as a norm rather than an exception. Meanwhile, continued advances in molecular biology and high-throughput technology have enabled a broad and systematic interrogation of whole-cell networks, allowing the investigation of biological processes and functions at unprecedented breadth and resolution—even down to the single-cell level. The explosion of biological data, especially molecular-level intracellular data, necessitates new paradigms for unraveling the complexity of biological networks and for understanding how biological functions emerge from such networks. These paradigms introduce new challenges related to the analysis of networks in which quantitative approaches such as machine learning and mathematical modeling play an indispensable role. The Special Issue on “Biological Networks” showcases advances in the development and application of in silico network modeling and analysis of biological systems.

Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat

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ISBN: 9783038979005 / 9783038979012 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-901-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Cancer survival rates and successful organ transplantation in patients continues to increase due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatments. Since immuno-suppressive therapies are frequently used, the mortality rate due to secondary infections has become an ever-increasing problem. Opportunistic fungal infections are probably the deadliest threat to these patients due to their difficult early diagnosis, the limited effect of antifungal drugs and the appearance of resistances. In recent years, a considerable effort has been devoted to investigating the role of many virulence traits in the pathogenic outcome of fungal infections. New virulence factors (hypoxia adaptation, CO2 sensing, pH regulation, micronutrient acquisition, secondary metabolites, immunity regulators, etc.) have been reported and their molecular mechanisms of action are being thoroughly investigated. The recent application of gene-editing technologies such as CRISPr-Cas9, has opened a whole new window to the discovery of new fungal virulence factors. Accurate fungal genotyping, Next Generation Sequencing and RNAseq approaches will undoubtedly provide new clues to interpret the plethora of molecular interactions controlling these complex systems. Unraveling their intimate regulatory details will provide insights for a more target-focused search or a rational design of more specific antifungal agents. This Special Issue is show significant discoveries, proofs of concept of new theories or relevant observations in fungal pathogenesis and its regulation.

Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280902 / 9783039280919 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-091-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.

Chemical Biology of Sterols, Triterpenoids and Other Natural Products: A Themed Issue in Honor of Professor W. David Nes on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783038974161 / 9783038974178 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-417-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sterols and other isoprenoids are of great interest for their molecular structure and function in cell architecture and evolution, as well as for their importance in medicine and agriculture. Molecules’ 2019 Festschrift Special Issue in honor of the 65th birthday of Prof. W. David Nes, an internationally recognized chemical biologist and recipient of the George Schroepher medal for sterol research, focuses on recent developments in the chemistry, biosynthesis, and function of these polycyclic natural products. This volume of Molecules contains 16 leading-edge review articles and original research contributions from an international cast of scientists. This volume is grouped into three sections: (i) isoprenoid metabolome and diversity, (ii) clinical evaluation of sterol and triterpene structures and biosynthesis, and (iii) methods and synthesis of steroids and other compounds. The volume will be a valuable reference tool for those who study medicinal chemistry, protein chemistry, and biochemistry of isoprenoid lipids.

Keywords

Zingiber officinale --- gingerols --- cytotoxic activity --- oleanolic acid --- high-fat high-carbohydrate diet --- pre-diabetes --- glucose homeostasis --- insulin resistance --- atherosclerosis --- ROS --- HUVECs --- LOX-1 --- alkaloid --- granatane --- N-methylcadaverine --- N-methylpiperidine. reductive deamination --- Mucorales --- Rhizopus arrhizus --- sterol pattern --- antifungal effectivity --- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) --- posaconazole --- sterol biosynthesis --- sterol 14?-demethylase --- sterol C24-methyltransferase --- mechanism-based inactivators --- antifungals --- azoles --- antiparasitic drugs --- human African trypanosomiasis --- Chagas disease --- synthesis --- squalene cyclase --- cycloartenol synthase --- triterpene --- fern --- Polystichum --- terpene --- isoprenoid --- divalent metal co-factor ligation --- antioxidant --- cholesterol --- degeneration --- oxysterol --- retina --- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome --- algal sterols --- ergosterol biosynthesis --- infectious disease --- lipidomics --- oxyphytosterol --- pharmacognosy --- phytosterol --- sterolomics --- lupeol --- keratinocytes --- fibroblasts --- wound healing --- cell migration --- UV-radiation --- ZnO --- toxicity --- sterol content --- cholesterol --- leishmania --- solanaceae --- withanolides --- aurelianolides --- phytosterols --- mesocarp --- oilseed --- maturity --- pod-blast --- ?-tocopherol --- oil bodies --- campesterol --- stigmasterol --- ?-sitosterol --- sterol --- C4-demethylation complex (C4DMC) --- 4-methylsterol --- hormone --- steroid --- development --- genetic disease --- bile alcohol --- cholestanoic acid --- oxysterol --- sterolomics --- enzyme-assisted derivatization --- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry --- Girard reagent --- n/a

Synthesis, Study and Utilization of Natural Products

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281527 / 9783039281534 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-153-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Natural products and the preparations based on them play a stable and ever-increasing role in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, in food and the cosmetic industry, and in an increasing number of other fields. Their importance is based on the fact that they are mostly bound to renewable sources, which in fact makes them valuable within a circular economy, inter alia. At the same time, natural products provide the origin of stereochemistry, optical activity, regioselectivity, chirality, and many other concepts and directions within science, development, and industry in a scope, which is indispensable. They serve as a constant powerful stimulus and model that inspires researchers to create new effective tools, similar to natural ones, for controlling bioregulation mechanisms and solving practical problems. This was the reason for organizing this Special Issue aimed at underlining the current developments in all the fields connected to natural products.

Keywords

insect sex pheromone --- tea tussock moth --- total synthesis --- resource chemistry --- phycocyanin --- biosynthesis --- antioxidant --- Spirulina --- gene expression --- apo-CpcB --- Plantago depressa --- octadecanoid --- fatty acid --- natural enantiomer --- anti-inflammation --- soy protein isolate --- bromelain --- triglycidylamine --- viscosity --- water resistance --- adhesive --- Ramulus mori --- polysaccharides --- bioactivity --- synthesis of natural products --- varioxiranol A --- 4-epi-varioxiranol A --- absolute structure --- Emericella variecolor --- caffeoylquinic acids --- chlorogenic acid --- derivatives --- lipid-lowering effects --- oleic acid-elicited --- HepG2 cells --- isosorbide --- reversible urethane linkages --- cell opening --- antioxidant activity --- radical scavenger --- flexible polyurethane foam --- tomato --- SlCOMT1 --- melatonin --- genetical transformation --- salt stress --- natural product --- RiPP --- ribosomally synthesized --- post-translationally modified peptides --- rheumatoid arthritis --- natural products --- polyphenol --- flavonoids --- phenolic acid --- stilbene --- ginkgolide --- platelet-activating factor receptor --- inhibitor --- pinocembrin --- microbial biosynthesis --- pharmacological activities --- pharmacokinetic features --- research progress --- triterpenoids --- bardoxolone methyl --- anticancer drug --- mitochondria --- apoptosis --- cancer cells --- cytotoxicity --- flow cytometry --- live-cell fluorescence microscopy --- PEGylated purpurin 18 --- photodynamic therapy --- photosensitizer --- phototoxicity --- singlet oxygen --- n/a

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