Search results: Found 15

Listing 1 - 10 of 15 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: Challenges and opportunities

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195442 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-544-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Aflatoxins are a group of polyketide mycotoxins that are produced mainly by members of the genus Aspergillus. Production of these toxic secondary metabolites is closely related to fungal development (Keller et al., 2005; Jamali et al., 2012). Contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by aflatoxins poses enormous economic and serious health concerns because these chemicals are highly carcinogenic and can directly influence the structure of DNA. The resulting genetic defects can lead to fetal misdevelopment and miscarriages; aflatoxins are also known to suppress immune systems (Razzaghi-Abyaneh et al., 2013). In a global context, aflatoxin contamination is a constant concern between the 35N and 35S latitude where developing countries are mainly situated. With expanding boundaries of developing countries, aflatoxin contamination has become a persistent problem to those emerging areas (Shams-Ghahfarokhi et al., 2013). The continuing threat by aflatoxin contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities to the world population has made aflatoxin research one of the most exciting and rapidly developing study areas of microbial toxins. The present research topic includes six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. Contributors highlight current global health issues arising from aflatoxins and aflatoxigenic fungi and cover important aspects of aflatoxin research including contamination of crops, epidemiology, molecular biology and management strategies. Special attention is given to fungus-plant host interactions, biodiversity and biocontrol, sexual recombination in aflatoxigenic aspergilli, potential biomarkers for aflatoxin exposure in humans and safe storage programs.

Crop Traits for Defense against Pests and Disease: Durability, Breakdown and Future Prospects

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451562 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-156-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

With global populations expected to exceed 9.2 billion by 2050 and available land and water resources devoted to crop production dwindling, we face significant challenges to secure global food security. Only 12 plant species feed 80% of the world’s population, with just three crop species (wheat, rice and maize) accounting for food consumed by 50% of the global population. Annual losses to crop pests and pathogens are significant, thought to be equivalent to that required to feed a billion people, at a time when crop productivity has plateaued. With pesticide applications becoming increasingly unfeasible on cost, efficacy and environmental grounds, there is growing interest in exploiting plant resistance and tolerance traits for crop protection. Indeed, mankind has been selectively breeding plants for desirable traits for thousands of years. However, resistance and tolerance traits have not always been those most desired, and in many cases have been inadvertently lost during the domestication process: crops have been effectively ‘disarmed by domestication’. Moreover, mechanistic understanding of how resistance and tolerance traits operate is often incomplete, which makes identifying the right combination for crop protection difficult. We aimed to address this Research Topic by inviting authors to contribute their knowledge of appropriate resistance and tolerance traits, explore what is known about durability and breakdown of defensive traits and, finally, asking what are the prospects for exploiting these traits for crop protection. The research topic summarised in this book addresses some of the most important issues in the future sustainability of global crop production.

Invasive Alien Plants: Impacts on Development and Options for Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781780646275; 9781786391346 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.1079/9781780646275.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Ecology --- Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 13:13:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Invasive alien plants pose a major threat to agriculture, the natural environment and livelihoods worldwide and create challenges for development. This is especially the case for those who live and work in rural areas. This book, for the first time, brings together a wide range of invasive plant specialists from the Asia-Pacific region who shares their experience in addressing the problem and delivering solutions. Mikania micrantha is used as case study in the book as it exemplifies many of the issues that need to be addressed. This neotropical vine is a major weed across the tropical humid zones of the region, where it smothers agroforestry, home gardens, natural forests and plantation production systems. The book emphasises the social and economic implications of plant invasion, and discusses direct impacts on livelihoods and biodiversity. It explains how various approaches to management including traditional ecological knowledge and classical biological control can be keys to the delivery of sustainable solutions, focusing on experiences in India, Nepal, Papua New Guinea and China. The use of policy frameworks in biological control and other management measures are also described.

Biopesticides Manual Guidelines for Selecting, Sourcing, Producing and Using Biopesticides for Key Pests of Tobacco

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781789242010; 9781789242027 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.1079/9781789242027.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 14:35:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This manual aims to make information resources and technical advice available in order to support the deployment of biopesticides, which include microbials (e.g. bacteria, algae, protozoa, viruses and fungi), macrobials (e.g. predatory insects, parasitoids and beneficial nematodes), botanicals, and semiochemicals. It is intended to be a one-stop shop to address the information needs of the key groups who are responsible for selecting, sourcing and using biopesticides in the tobacco production system. Chapter 2 provides information for decision makers to support selection of biopesticide active substances. It also provides guidelines for trial managers on experimental design, data collection and reporting. Chapter 3 provides guidance for sourcing biopesticides. It also includes manuals for the local production of three types of biopesticide: Trichogramma; neem [Azadirachta indica]; and fungal biopesticides such as Trichoderma. Chapter 4 presents training materials to provide an overview of biopesticides in general together with detailed information on how to work with the key biopesticides that have already been used successfully to manage key pests in tobacco.

Review of Invertebrate Biological Control Agents Introduced into Europe

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781786390790; 9781786390806; 9781786390813 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.1079/9781786390790.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:28:31
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This review provides an overview of all documented releases of exotic (non-European) invertebrate biological control agents (IBCAs) into the environment in Europe and summarizes key information on the target species as well as on the biological control agent released. It is an update of A Review of Biological Control in Western and Southern Europe edited by Greathead (1976) and covers the period from 1897, when the beetle Rodolia cardinalis was introduced into Portugal against the invasive cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, until the end of 2009. This review is based largely on the BIOCAT database (Greathead and Greathead 1992), which contains records of the introduction of insect natural enemies, namely parasitoids and predators, for the control of insect pests worldwide. This review may not provide the complete list of BC agents introduced into Europe. Nevertheless, the report includes a vast majority of the introductions, and hence provides a representative picture of the history of releases of exotic BC agents into the environment in Europe.

Progress in Mathematical Ecology

Author:
ISBN: 9783038973126 9783038973133 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-313-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Ecology --- Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-07 09:41:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Mathematical ecology is an area of applied mathematics concerned with the application of mathematical concepts, tools and techniques, usually in the form of mathematical models, to problems arising in population dynamics, ecology and evolution. This Special Issue is designed to provide a snapshot of the state of the art in mathematical ecology. Topics of interest are (in no particular order) biological invasions, biological control, ecological pattern formation, ecologically relevant multiscale models, food webs, individual movement and dispersal, eco-epidemiology, evolutionary ecology, agroecosystems, regime shifts and early warning signals, synchronization and chaos. The list is inclusive rather than exclusive, and a few other relevant topics will also be considered.

Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781786394118; 9781786394118 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.1079/9781786394118.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:13:23
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This proceedings contains papers dealing with issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining to the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as other transversal issues related to its implementation. It has 14 sessions addressing the most relevant and current topics in the field of biological control of arthropods: (i) Accidental introductions of biocontrol agens: positive and negative aspects; (ii) The importance of pre and post release genetics in biological control; (iii) How well do we understand non-target impacts in arthropod biological control; (iv) Regulation and access and benefit sharing policies relevant for classical biological control approaches; (v) The role of native and alien natural enemy diversity in biological control; (vi) Frontiers in forest insect control; (vii) Biocontrol marketplace I; (viii) Weed and arthropod biological control: mutual benefits and challenges; (ix) Maximizing opportunities for biological control in Asia's rapidly changing agro-environments; (x) Biological control based integrated pest management: does it work?; (xi) Exploring the compatibility of arthropod biological control and pesticides: models and data; (xii) Successes and uptake of arthropod biological control in developing countries; (xiii) Socio-economic impacts of biological control; (xiv) Biocontrol marketplace II.

Mycoviruses

Author:
ISBN: 9783038979968 9783038979975 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-997-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

A virus (from the Latin word ‘v?rus’ meaning ‘venom’ or ‘poison’) is a microorganism invisible to the naked eye. Viruses can multiply exclusively by entering a cell and using the cell’s resources to create copies of themselves. As the origin of their name suggests, viruses are generally considered dangerous, harmful and often deadly. Some of the most well-studied and widely known viruses, such as HIV and influenza, infect humans. However, viruses can also infect animals, plants and microorganisms, including fungi. Many fungi are medically, ecologically and economically significant, for example, causing diseases to humans, plants and insects or being used in industry to produce bread, cheese, beer and wine. Viruses that infect fungi are called mycoviruses (from the Greek work ‘myco’, meaning ‘fungus’). Mycoviruses do not cause harm to or kill the infected fungus; in contrast, they are ‘friendly’ viruses and we can utilize them to control the growth, pathogenicity and toxin production of fungi. This book describes a range of different mycoviruses and their geographical distribution, transmission and evolution, together with their effects on the fungal hosts and how these are brought about.

Keywords

RNA silencing --- gemycircularvirus --- mycovirus --- antiviral --- dicer --- dsRNA mycoviruses --- multiplex PCR --- Aspergillus fumigatus chrysovirus --- Aspergillus fumigatus partitivirus-1 --- Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1. --- Botrytis cinerea --- hypovirus --- fusarivirus --- hypovirulence --- infection cushion --- Botrytis cinerea --- Botrytis cinerea mymonavirus 1 --- Mymonaviridae --- dsRNA virus --- mycovirus --- capsid protein --- capsid structure --- virus evolution --- viral lineage --- ScV-L-A --- PcV --- PsV-F --- RnQV1 --- chrysovirus --- mycovirus --- Aspergillus --- A. fumigatus --- A. nidulans --- A. niger --- A. thermomutatus --- biocontrol --- Saccharomyces paradoxus --- Totiviridae --- dsRNA virus --- killer system --- Trichoderma atroviride --- Mycovirus --- Partitivirus --- Fusarium head blight --- mycovirus --- RNA genome --- mitovirus --- Tymovirales --- Ethiopia --- Sclerotinia minor --- endornavirus --- hypovirulence --- transmissibility --- biological control --- Chalara fraxinea --- Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus --- ash dieback --- Narnaviridae --- evolution --- invasive species --- horizontal virus transmission --- Brunchorstia pinea --- conifers --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- ssRNA --- phylogeny --- evolution --- mycovirus --- Beauveria bassiana --- partitivirus --- victorivirus --- polymycovirus --- selection pressure --- recombination --- transmission --- mycovirus --- populations study --- Cryphonectria parasitica --- chestnut blight --- Castanea sativa --- biological control --- Mycovirus --- rice blast fungus --- Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 --- double-stranded RNA virus --- hypovirulence --- Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- Alphapartitivirus --- genomic structure analysis --- mycorrhizal fungi --- mycovirus --- mitovirus --- Rhizophagus --- hypovirus --- small RNA --- tRFs --- mycovirus --- fungal viruses --- dsRNA mycoviruses --- hypervirulence --- Leptosphaeria biglobosa quadrivirus --- Botrytis cinerea --- hypovirulence --- partitivirus --- conidiogenesis --- sclerogenesis --- mycovirus --- dsRNA --- sequencing --- killer toxin --- totivirus --- brown rot --- stone fruit --- Prunus --- mycovirus --- hypervirulence --- hypovirulence --- isogenic --- database mining --- Entomophthora --- Entomophthoromycotina --- fungal virus --- mitochondrion --- mycovirus --- virus discovery --- Mitovirus --- Narnaviridae --- n/a

Forest Insects and Pathogens in a Changing Environment: Ecology, Monitoring & Genetics (IUFRO Joint Meeting of WP7.03.05 & 7.03.10)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215119 9783039215126 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-512-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

After the successful conclusion of the Joint Meeting of IUFRO’s 7.03.05 & 7.03.10 working parties and given the exciting and novel studies that have been presented in the framework of this meeting, we decided to present some of these studies in the current Special Issue of Forests. To make this issue more appealing and interesting to everyone in the field of Forest Protection, studies that cover a wide range of topics were selected, ranging from ecology and phylogeography to forest management and protection. More importantly, as these studies refer to pests and pathogens from different parts of the world, it is expected that the knowledge gained can be further used in the protection of natural environment worldwide.

Impacts, Monitoring and Management of Forest Pests and Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281664 9783039281671 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-167-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Forest pests have diverse negative impacts on forestry economy, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and sustainable ecosystem management. The first step towards effectively managing forest pests would be to monitor their occurrence and assess their impact on forest ecosystems. The monitoring results can provide basic information for effective management strategies. The data from monitoring programs can result in the development of new methods for monitoring, assessing impact, and developing management techniques. This special issue aims to share information to assist in the effective management of forest pests, by understanding the responses of forest pests to natural and anthropogenic changes, and discussing new studies on the monitoring, assessment, and management of forest pests. The fourteen papers included in this issue focus on monitoring, assessing, and managing forest pests, including one editorial providing an overall idea of the monitoring, assessment and management of forest pests, two articles reviewing long-term changes in forest pests and forests, four papers focusing on the monitoring of forest pests, three papers on the assessment of forest pests, and four papers on the management of forest pests. These papers provide a better understanding of the structures and processes in forest ecosystems and fundamental information for the effective management of forest pests.

Listing 1 - 10 of 15 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (9)

CABI (4)

Frontiers Media SA (2)


License

CC by-nc-nd (13)

CC by (2)


Language

english (14)

eng (1)


Year
From To Submit

2020 (2)

2019 (5)

2018 (3)

2017 (3)

2015 (1)

106 (1)