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Optimization of Biodiesel, Methanol and Methane Production and Air Quality Improvement

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ISBN: 9783039281008 9783039281015 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-101-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Alternative and renewable energy sources already play a very decisive role in the development of human society, helping to fulfill increasing energy demands from both industrialized and underdeveloped countries, as well as economic needs, which must comply with a decarbonized economy, decreasing the energy impact on the global environment. Among these alternative energy sources, fuels such as biodiesel, methanol, and methane are good examples of how the previous design can be achieved, as these fuels can be obtained from renewable sources, used in applications such as transportation systems, electricity generation, fuel conversion, and even for electricity storage, with reduced impact on air emissions. This Special Issue includes papers on new and innovative technical developments or approaches, reviews, case studies, as well as assessment, papers from different disciplines, which are relevant to the optimization of biodiesel, methane/methanol production systems, simultaneously resulting in air quality improvement.

Bioconversion Processes

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ISBN: 9783038429456 9783038429463 Year: Pages: VI, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 12:05:03
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Compared to conventional chemical technologies and other similar industrial processes, bioprocesses represent a more sustainable and environmentally-friendly alternative for the production of fuels and platform chemicals. In biorefineries, different kinds of feedstocks, such as biomass or lignocellulosic materials in general, can be used and fermented by microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, algae), after some pretreatment steps, to produce high added-value metabolites. More recently, wastes, wastewaters and also waste gases have been shown to be suitable for resource recovery or for their bioconversion to (bio)fuels (e.g., ethanol, butanol, hexanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas) or other commercial products (e.g., biopolymers). In this sense, much effort has also been made to bioconvert greenhouse gases, such as CO2, into useful products.The goal of this Special Issue is to publish both recent innovative research data, as well as review papers on the fermentation of different types of substrates to commercial (bio)fuels and (bio)products, mainly focusing on the bioconversion of pollutants in solid, liquid, or gas phases (wastes, wastewaters, waste gases).

Alternative Fuels for Transportation

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ISBN: 9781439819586 Year: Pages: 463 DOI: 10.1201/b16260 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Mathematics --- Heat --- Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-23 00:07:14
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Exploring how to counteract the world's energy insecurity and environmental pollution, this volume covers the production methods, properties, storage, engine tests, system modification, transportation and distribution, economics, safety aspects, applications, and material compatibility of alternative fuels. The esteemed editor highlights the importance of moving toward alternative fuels and the problems and environmental impact of depending on petroleum products. Each self-contained chapter focuses on a particular fuel source, including vegetable oils, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, hydrogen, electric, fuel cells, and fuel from nonfood crops.

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

Biomass Processing for Biofuels, Bioenergy and Chemicals

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289097 / 9783039289103 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-910-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Biomass can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, transportation fuels (biofuels), and high-value functional chemicals. As an energy source, biomass can be used either directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly after it is converted to one of many forms of bioenergy and biofuel via thermochemical or biochemical pathways. The conversion of biomass can be achieved using various advanced methods, which are broadly classified into thermochemical conversion, biochemical conversion, electrochemical conversion, and so on. Advanced development technologies and processes are able to convert biomass into alternative energy sources in solid (e.g., charcoal, biochar, and RDF), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, bioethanol, and pyrolysis and liquefaction bio-oils), and gaseous (e.g., biogas, syngas, and biohydrogen) forms. Because of the merits of biomass energy for environmental sustainability, biofuel and bioenergy technologies play a crucial role in renewable energy development and the replacement of chemicals by highly functional biomass. This book provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical research addressing recent progress in biomass conversion processes. It also covers studies on advanced techniques and methods for bioenergy and biofuel production.

Keywords

lignocellulose --- pretreatment --- hardwood --- extrusion --- enzymatic digestibility --- bioethanol --- renewable energy --- biofuel --- environment --- technology development --- co-combustion --- sewage sludge --- thermogravimetric analysis --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- synergistic effect --- single-pellet combustion --- biodiesel --- fatty acid methyl ester --- free fatty acids --- oxidation stability --- antioxidant --- hydrogen --- coffee mucilage --- organic wastes --- dark fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- biodiesel --- bio-jet fuel --- triacylglycerides --- Fatty Acid Methyl Ester --- lipids --- hydrodeoxygenation --- drop-in fuel --- rubber seed oil --- biodiesel production --- nanomagnetic catalyst --- subcritical methanol --- FAME yield --- Box-Behnken design --- GCI --- biodiesel --- diesel --- combustion --- emission --- renewable energy --- microwave --- free fatty acid --- crude oil --- renewable energy --- biomass --- waste --- black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) --- instar --- lipid --- fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) --- fermentation --- Rancimat method --- butylated hydroxyanisole --- tert-butylhydroquinone --- fatty acid methyl esters --- viscosity --- response surface --- anaerobic treatment --- biogas --- kinetic study --- potato peels --- cow manure --- thermophilic --- mesophilic --- palm oil mill effluent --- acclimatization --- direct carbon fuel cell --- biochar --- pyrolysis --- power density --- pre-treatment --- post-treatment --- combustion characteristics --- injection strategies --- compression ratio --- intake temperature --- torrefaction --- vacuum --- biomass pretreatment --- bioenergy --- energy yield --- biochar --- rice straw --- rice husk --- power generation --- gasification --- alternative fuel --- Rhus typhina biodiesel --- non-edible oil --- base-catalyzed transesterification --- Physico-chemical properties --- concentration polarization --- draw solution --- feed solution --- forward osmosis --- pressure-retarded osmosis --- operating conditions --- membrane fouling --- osmotic membrane --- bioenergy --- biofuel --- nanotechnology --- nano-catalysts --- nano-additives --- crude glycerol --- glycerol carbonate --- dimethyl carbonate --- microwave irradiation --- reaction kinetics

Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039287321 / 9783039287338 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-733-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The chemical industry is essential in the daily humn life of modern society; despite the misconception about the real need for chemical production, everyone enjoys the benefit of the chemical progress. However, the chemical industry generates a large variety of products, including (i) basic chemicals, e.g., polymers, petrochemicals, and basic inorganics; (ii) specialty chemicals for crop protection, paints, inks, colorants, textiles, paper, and engineering; and (iii) consumer chemicals, including detergents, soaps, etc. For these reasons, chemists in both acdemia and industry are challenged with developing green and sustainable chemical production towrad the full-recycling of feedstocks and waste. Aiming to improve the intensification of the process, chemists have established chemical reactions based on catalysis, as well as alternative technologies, such as continuous flow. The aim of this book is to cover promising recent research and novel trends in the field of novel catalytic reactions (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic, as well as their combinations) in continuous flow conditions. A collection of recent contribution for conversion of starting material originated from petroleum resources or biomass into highly-added value chemicals are reported.

Advances in Food and By-Products Processing Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy

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ISBN: 9783039217526 9783039217533 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-753-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The bioeconomy initially focused on resource substitution, including the production of biomass from various resources; its conversion, fractionation, and processing by means of biotechnology; and chemistry and process engineering towards the production and marketing of food, feed, fuel, and fibre. Nevertheless, although resource substitution is still considered important, the emphasis has been recently shifted to the biotechnological innovation perspective of the bioeconomy, in terms that ensure environmental sustainability. It is estimated that around one-third of the food produced for human consumption is wasted throughout the world, posing not only a sustainability problem related to food security but also a significant environmental problem. Food waste streams, mainly derived from fruits and vegetables, cereals, oilseeds, meat, dairy, and fish processing, have unavoidably attracted the interest of the scientific community as an abundant reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and functional compounds, which can be utilized as raw materials for added-value product formulations. This Special Issue focuses on innovative and emerging food and by-products processing methods for the sustainable transition to a bioeconomy era.

Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039215188 9783039215195 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-519-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Energy Systems Engineering is one of the most exciting and fastest growing fields in engineering. Modeling and simulation plays a key role in Energy Systems Engineering because it is the primary basis on which energy system design, control, optimization, and analysis are based. This book contains a specially curated collection of recent research articles on the modeling and simulation of energy systems written by top experts around the world from universities and research labs, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US Department of Energy, University of Technology Sydney, McMaster University, Queens University, Purdue University, the University of Connecticut, Technical University of Denmark, the University of Toronto, Technische Universität Berlin, Texas A&M, the University of Pennsylvania, and many more. The key research themes covered include energy systems design, control systems, flexible operations, operational strategies, and systems analysis. The addressed areas of application include electric power generation, refrigeration cycles, natural gas liquefaction, shale gas treatment, concentrated solar power, waste-to-energy systems, micro-gas turbines, carbon dioxide capture systems, energy storage, petroleum refinery unit operations, Brayton cycles, to name but a few.

Keywords

cogeneration --- process integration --- solar energy --- thermal storage --- desalination --- optimization --- naphtha recovery unit --- statistical model --- simulation --- optimization --- concentrating solar thermal --- CST --- concentrating solar power --- CSP --- parabolic trough --- PTC --- thermal storage --- industrial process heat --- hybrid solar --- power plants --- supervisory control --- dynamic simulation --- dynamic optimization --- optimal control --- post-combustion CO2 capture --- energy efficiency --- time-varying operation --- shale gas condensate --- process synthesis and design --- shale gas condensate-to-heavier liquids --- technoeconomic analysis --- supercritical carbon dioxide --- recompression cycle --- combined cycle --- efficiency --- organic Rankine cycle --- exergy loss --- second law efficiency --- auto thermal reformer --- palladium membrane hydrogen separation --- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) --- multi-loop control --- nonsmooth modeling --- process simulation --- DMR liquefaction processes --- fuel cost minimization problem --- FCMP --- piecewise-linear function generation --- linearization --- natural gas transportation --- compressor modeling --- compressibility factor --- isentropic exponent --- friction factor --- demand response --- energy management --- energy storage --- optimal battery operation --- battery degradation --- micro gas turbine --- modelling --- diagnostics, gas path analysis, analysis by synthesis --- circulating fluidized bed boiler --- refuse derived fuel --- waste to energy --- dynamic modeling --- process control --- dynamic modeling --- process control --- load-following --- supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) --- cycling --- time-delay --- smith predictor --- energy systems --- modeling and simulation --- multi-scale systems engineering --- sustainable process design --- energy economics --- top-down models --- hybrid Life Cycle Assessment --- oil and gas --- offshore wind --- combined cycle --- hybrid system --- kriging --- multi-objective optimisation --- solar PV --- wind power --- life cycle analysis --- energy storage --- multiphase equilibrium --- RK-ASPEN --- methyl-oleate --- biodiesel --- supercritical CO2 --- WHENS --- work and heat integration --- building blocks --- superstructure --- MINLP --- absorption refrigeration --- H2O-LiBr working pair --- double-effect system --- cost optimization --- nonlinear mathematical programming --- Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) --- geothermal energy --- binary cycle --- R245fa --- R123 --- mixture ratio --- Dieng --- Indonesia --- modeling --- simulation --- energy --- energy systems --- process systems engineering --- optimization --- process design --- operations

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