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Behavioral and physiological bases of attentional biases: Paradigms, participants, and stimuli

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196401 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-640-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:50:54
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Attentional biases (ABs) play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of clinically relevant symptoms of, for example, anxiety and depression. In particular, increased attentional orienting and preoccupation with biologically relevant and mood-congruent stimuli has been observed, suggesting that the visual-attentional system is overly sensitive towards threat cues and avoidant of cues of reward in these disorders. First, several experimental paradigms have been used to assess ABs, e.g., the dot probe task, the emotional stroop task, and the spatial cueing task amongst others. Yet, these paradigms are based on different theoretical backgrounds and target different stages of the attentional process. Thus, different paradigms provided converging as well as diverging evidence with regard to ABs. However, it is often not entirely clear to what extent this reflects real differences and commonalities, or is caused by differences in methodology. For example, behavioral reaction time data can only provide a snapshot of selective attention. Measuring event-related potentials, eye movements, or functional brain imaging data enables exploring the exact temporal and spatial dynamics of attentional processes. Moreover, neuroimaging data reveal specific cortical networks involved in directing attention toward a stimulus or disengaging from it. Second, ABs have been mainly discussed as symptoms of psychopathology, while results in healthy participants are still scarce; previous studies mostly compared extreme groups. However, a comprehensive theoretical and empirical account of ABs in psychopathology also requires a thorough account of ABs in the general healthy population. Moreover, the effect of gender, as an important contributing factor in processing of emotional stimuli, has also not been considered systematically in previous research. Third, a variety of stimuli has been used in the assessment of ABs. So far, mostly facial or word stimuli have been applied. However, in everyday life not only facial emotion recognition but also a fast evaluation of complex social situations is important to be effective in social interactions. Recent research started using more complex stimuli to raise ecological validity. However, the use of ecologically valid stimuli poses some methodological challenges and needs to be applied more systematically. The aim of this research topic is to integrate different paradigms and stimuli, addressing individuals from the whole range of the population continuum, and to apply different methodological approaches. It is intended to bring together expertise in stimulus selection, timing and implementing issues, advancing and broadening the overall understanding of ABs.

New Methods for Measuring and Analyzing Segregation

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Book Series: The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis ISSN: 1389-6784 / 2215-1990 ISBN: 9783319413020 9783319413044 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41304-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:00:25
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This book introduces new methods for measuring and analyzing residential segregation. It begins by placing all popular segregation indices in the “difference of group means” framework wherein index scores can be obtained as simple differences of group means on individual-level residential attainments scored from area racial composition. Drawing on the insight that in this framework index scores are additively determined by individual residential attainments, the book shows that the level of segregation in a given city can be equated to the effect of group membership (e.g., race) on individual residential attainments. This unifies separate research traditions in the field by joining the analysis of segregation at the aggregate level with the analysis of residential attainments for individuals. Next it shows how segregation analysis can be extended by using multivariate attainment models to assess the impact of group membership (i.e., the level of segregation for a city) while including controls for other relevant individual characteristics (e.g., income, education, language, nativity, etc.). It then illustrates how one can use these models to quantitatively assess the extent to which segregation traces to impacts of group membership on residential attainments versus other factors such as group differences in income. The book then shows how micro-level attainment models can be used to study macro-level variation in segregation; specifically, by estimating multi-level models of individual residential attainments to assess how the effect of group membership (i.e., segregation index scores) vary with city characteristics. Finally, the book introduces refined versions of popular indices that are free of the vexing problem of upward bias. This improves the quality of segregation measurement directly at the level of individual cases and expanding the number of cases that can be safely included in empirical studies.

The Underrepresentation of Women in Science: International and Cross-Disciplinary Evidence and Debate

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454341 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-434-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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There is no shortage of articles and books exploring women’s underrepresentation in science. Everyone is interested--academics, politicians, parents, high school girls (and boys), women in search of college majors, administrators working to accommodate women’s educational interests; the list goes on. But one thing often missing is an evidence-based examination of the problem, uninfluenced by personal opinions, accounts of “lived experiences,” anecdotes, and the always-encroaching inputs of popular culture. This is why this special issue of Frontiers in Psychology can make a difference. In it, a diverse group of authors and researchers with even more diverse viewpoints find themselves united by their empirical, objective approaches to understanding women’s underrepresentation in science today. The questions considered within this special issue span academic disciplines, methods, levels of analysis, and nature of analysis; what these article share is their scholarly, evidence-based approach to understanding a key issue of our time.

The Price of Uncertainty in Present-Biased Planning (Book chapter)

Book title: Web and Internet Economics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319719245 Year: Pages: 15 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-71924-5_23 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 691672
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-04 11:01:52
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The tendency to overestimate immediate utility is a common cognitive bias. As a result people behave inconsistently over time and fail&#xD;to reach long-term goals. Behavioral economics tries to help affected individuals&#xD;by implementing external incentives. However, designing robust&#xD;incentives is often difficult due to imperfect knowledge of the parameter&#xD;β ∈ (0, 1] quantifying a person’s present bias. Using the graphical model&#xD;of Kleinberg and Oren [8], we approach this problem from an algorithmic&#xD;perspective. Based on the assumption that the only information about&#xD;β is its membership in some set B ⊂ (0, 1], we distinguish between two&#xD;models of uncertainty: one in which β is fixed and one in which it varies&#xD;over time. As our main result we show that the conceptual loss of effi-&#xD;ciency incurred by incentives in the form of penalty fees is at most 2&#xD;in the former and 1 + max B/ min B in the latter model. We also give&#xD;asymptotically matching lower bounds and approximation algorithms.

The Propaganda Model Today

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Critical Digital and Social Media Studies ISBN: 9781912656172 9781912656165 9781912656189 9781912656196 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.16997/book27 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press Grant: University of Westminster
Subject: Political Science --- Media and communication --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:15
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"Thirty years after Chomsky and Herman elaborated the Propaganda Model this title aims to introduce a new generation of readers to it. It presents cutting-edge research demonstrating the model’s general validity as well as new attempts – in the light of digital media and 21st century politics – to critically update, expand, and refine it. International researchers thus analyse the continuities and new developments in media Environments throughout various regions of the world. Part I addresses the theoretical and methodological dimensions of the PM beginning with an interview with Edward Herman on the model itself. Part II reflects on propaganda as a concept and practice within new mediated digital communications systems and interfaces. Applications of the Propaganda Model are featured in Part III notably new forms of media and content not previously analysed within it: the entertainment industries through the analysis of television, professional sports, Hollywood movies and videogames using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The last section presents case studies of corporate media and reporting practices as reflections of elite power. An extensive re-visioning of the PM this book concludes by identifying the fundamental dimensions of the model, the key modifications and expansions that are suggested—such as the inclusion of new filters—whilst assessing the model’s overall value for conducting research in different geographical contexts and media systems and products."

Understanding Selfies

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454655 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-465-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the year 2013, ‘selfie’ was named word of the year by Oxford Dictionaries in recognition of dramatic changes in frequency, prominence, and register of the term. This drastic increase in selfie-taking was spurred by two factors. The first was the advent of smartphones equipped with front cameras and preview screens that made it easy to compose a photographic self-portrait by a process of deliberately exploring one’s image, choosing a pose, and finally taking the picture. The second key change contributing to the rise of the selfie age was the increasing availability of internet connections. It is estimated that about 50% of the world population has access to the internet today (2018; https://www.internetworldstats.com). At the end of the past century, this percentage was a mere 1%. The growth of the internet infrastructure simultaneously spurred the development of social network applications such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram, providing accessible media for sharing photographs including photographic self-portraits. However, despite their tremendous reach and popularity, selfies have so far received relatively little attention by the scientific community, especially within psychology. Thus, we proposed a Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic to expand empirical and theoretical work on the massively popular, yet scientifically unexplored, phenomenon of the selfie. The articles published in this eBook offer a multifaceted insight into current scholarly work on this topic.

Social Desirability and Environmental Valuation

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631632581 Year: Pages: 265 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics --- Psychology --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:59
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Socially desirable responding (SDR) is an often-reported source of bias in survey interviews. It describes the tendency of a respondent to answer in a way that is socially desirable rather than to answer truthfully. This response bias also threatens the reliability and validity of survey-based environmental valuation techniques such as the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Therefore, the study deals with the assessment of the conditions for the occurrence of SDR in CVM interviews. A behavioral model is devised to take into account a set of factors triggering SDR responses. The impact of these factors of SDR on willingness to pay (WTP) responses is tested. The results reveal that the relevant factors do not affect WTP statements simultaneously but rather influence them in an independent manner. These findings can improve future CVM studies by identifying respondents who are prone to be influenced by SDR.

Biased Cognitions & Social Anxiety: Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neural Processes

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194230 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-423-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

Reward Processing in Motivational and Affective Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199860 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-986-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Preferential reward processing is the hallmark of addiction, where salient cues become overvalued and trigger compulsion. In depression, rewards appear to lose their incentive properties or become devalued. In the context of schizophrenia, aberrations in neural reward signalling are thought to contribute to the overvaluation of irrelevant stimuli on the one hand and the onset of negative symptoms on the other. Accordingly, reward processing has emerged as a key variable in contemporary, evidence based, diagnostic frameworks, such as the Research Domain Criteria launched by the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Delineation of the underlying mechanisms of aberrant or blunted reward processing can be of trans-diagnostic importance across several neuropsychiatric disorders. Reward processing can become automatic thus raising the question of cognitive control, a core theme of this Topic, which aims at justifying the necessity of reward processing as a potential therapeutic target in clinical settings. Empirical and theoretical contributions on the following themes were expected to: *Explore new avenues of research by investigating the processing of rewards at the cognitive, behavioral, motivational, neural systems and individual difference levels. A developmental focus is promising in this regard, probing the core processes that shape reward processing and thus subsequent liability to motivational and affective disorders. *Develop and refine conceptual models of reward processing from computational neuroscience. *Promote greater understanding and development of emergent therapeutic approaches such as cognitive bias modification and behavioural approach or avoidance training. A key question is the feasibility of reversing or modifying maladaptive patterns of reward processing to therapeutic ends. *Refine and augment the evidential database for tried and tested therapies such as Contingency Management and Behavioral Activation by focusing on core cognitive processes mediating rewards. *Provide a potential dimensional approach for reward processing deficits that can be of trans-diagnostic importance in clinically relevant disorders, including depression and addiction * Investigate the subjective experience of pleasure- the hedonic aspect of reward seeking and consumption – and how this can be distinguished from the motivational, sometimes compulsive, component of reward pursuit. This promises more nuanced and effective interventions. Depression, for instance, could be seen as the restricted pursuit of pleasure rather than blunted pleasure experience; addiction can be viewed as accentuated drug seeking despite diminished consummatory pleasure. This aims to place motivation centre stage in both scenarios, emphasising the transdiagnostic theme of the Topic. *Temporal discounting of future rewards, whereby smaller, more immediate rewards are chosen even when significantly more valuable deferred rewards are available, is another trans-diagnostic phenomenon of interest in the in the present context. Factors that influence this, such as discounting of future reward are thought to reflect compulsion in the addictive context and hopelessness on the part of people experiencing depression. The executive cognitive processes that regulate this decision making are of both scientific and clinical significance. Empirical findings, theoretical contributions or commentaries bearing on cognitive or executive control were therefore welcome.

Learning in Social Context: The Nature and Profit of Living in Groups for Development

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451821 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-182-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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One of the distinctive features of humans is their unique sociality. Humans live in organized societies that are characterized by a high level of interdependence of group members in various aspects of life, ranging from the economic phenomenon of labour division to providing emotional support to others. Under these circumstances, the capacity to track social connections within and between groups has great adaptive value in managing everyday life. We may understand the importance and adaptive value of tracking the scope of culturally shared knowledge if we consider the importance of cultural norms in guiding behaviour. To become a competent member of their cultural group one must be able to conform to the group's specific behavioural norms and to accumulate culturally shared knowledge. Acquiring this knowledge is essential for successful social interactions. In contrast to current dominant explanatory theories emphasizing that social category formation is simply rooted in humans’ need to belong and affiliate with a group, the aim of this e-book is to provide evidence that, in addition to its affiliative role, children form social categories for epistemic purposes. We show that children use specific cues, like kinship, patterns of resource allocation and consensus to understand group cohesion (Section 1). Once children figured out who is in-group and who is out-group, they show a significant in-group bias in attention, acting and learning (Section 2). Yet, this in-group bias can be attenuated by induced synchronous behavior (Section 3).

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