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Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450954 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-095-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Filamentous phage (genus Inovirus) infect almost invariably Gram-negative bacteria. They are distinguished from all other bacteriophage not only by morphology, but also by the mode of their assembly, a secretion-like process that does not kill the host. “Classic” Escherichia coli filamentous phage Ff (f1, fd and M13) are used in display technology and bio/nano/technology, whereas filamentous phage in general have been put to use by their bacterial hosts for adaptation to environment, pathogenesis, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer and modulating genome stability. Many filamentous phage have a “symbiotic” life style that is often manifested by inability to form plaques, preventing their identification by standard phage-hunting techniques; while the absence or very low sequence conservation between phage infecting different species often complicates their identification through bioinformatics. Nevertheless, the number of discovered filamentous phage is increasing rapidly, along with realization of their significance. “Temperate” filamentous phage whose genomes are integrated into the bacterial chromosome of pathogenic bacteria often modulate virulence of the host. The Vibrio cholerae phage CTXf genome encodes cholera toxin, whereas many filamentous prophage influence virulence without encoding virulence factors. The nature of their effect on the bacterial pathogenicity and overall physiology is the next frontier in understanding intricate relationship between the filamentous phage and their hosts. Phage display has been widely used as a combinatorial technology of choice for discovery of therapeutic antibodies and peptide leads that have been applied in the vaccine design, diagnostics and drug development or targeting over the past thirty years. Virion proteins of filamentous phage are integral membrane proteins prior to assembly; hence they are ideal for display of bacterial surface and secreted proteins. The use of this technology at the scale of microbial community has potential to identify host-interacting proteins of uncultivable or low-represented community members. Recent applications of Ff filamentous phage extend into protein evolution, synthetic biology and nanotechnology. In many applications, phage serves as a monodisperse long-aspect nano-scaffold of well-defined shape. Chemical or chenetic modifications of this scaffold are used to introduce the necessary functionalities, such as fluorescent labels, ligands that target specific proteins, or peptides that promote formation of inorganic or organic nanostructures. We anticipate that the future holds development of new strategies for particle assembly, site-specific multi-functional modifications and improvement of existing modification strategies. These improvements will render the production of filamentous-phage-templated materials safe and affordable, allowing their applications outside of the laboratory.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins

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ISBN: 9783039214419 9783039214426 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-442-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Phages have shown a high biotechnological potential with numerous applications. The advent of high-resolution microscopy techniques aligned with omic and molecular tools have revealed innovative phage features and enabled new processes that can be further exploited for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of fields. The high-quality original articles and reviews presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the incredible potential of phages and their derived proteins in a wide range of biotechnological applications for human benefit. Considering the emergence of amazing new available bioengineering tools and the high abundance of phages and the multitude of phage proteins yet to be discovered and studied, we believe that the upcoming years will present us with many more fascinating and new previously unimagined phage-based biotechnological applications.

Keywords

gene expression regulation --- molecular probe --- macromolecular interactions --- phage-host interaction --- bacteriophage --- endolysin --- Clostridium perfringens --- alpha-sheet --- cancerous tumors --- capsid dynamics --- drug delivery vehicles --- native gel electrophoresis --- neurodegenerative disease --- pathogenic viruses --- phage display --- landscape phage --- major coat protein --- nanomedicine --- diagnostics --- biosensors --- M13 bacteriophage --- biofilm --- porous structure --- filters --- self-assembly --- T7phage library --- sarcoidosis --- tuberculosis --- microarray --- immunoscreening --- R-type pyocin --- bacteriocin --- contractile injection systems --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- X-ray crystallography --- receptor-binding protein --- Shigella flexneri --- bacteriophage --- tailspike proteins --- O-antigen --- serotyping --- microtiter plate assay --- fluorescence sensor --- bacteriophages --- encapsulation --- niosomes --- transfersomes --- liposomes --- Staphylococcus aureus --- phage --- Enterococcus faecalis --- Streptococcus agalactiae --- culture enrichment --- bacteriophage --- diagnostics --- Listeria monocytogenes --- endolysin --- magnetic separation --- reporter phage --- endolysin --- Pal --- Cpl-1 --- safety --- toxicity --- immune response --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- self-assembly --- nanotubular structures --- tail sheath protein --- bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3 --- Appelmans --- bacteriophage evolution --- bacteriophage recombination --- phage therapy --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophages --- Myoviridae --- bacteriophage-derived lytic enzyme --- enzybiotics --- endolysin --- in vitro activity --- ESKAPE --- n/a

Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality

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ISBN: 9783039213917 9783039213924 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-392-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- vB_SauM-fRuSau02 --- Twortlikevirus --- antibiotic --- antimicrobial resistance --- magistral preparation --- compounding pharmacy --- phage therapy --- regulatory framework --- personalized medicine --- bacteriophage --- phage --- horizontal gene transfer --- co-evolution --- phage therapy --- industrial phage application --- antimicrobial resistance (AMR) --- Germany --- pH stability --- phage-host interactions --- genomics --- antibiotic-resistance --- phage preparation --- lysins --- biofilms --- typhoid fever --- Salmonella Typhi --- extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) --- Democratic Republic of the Congo --- bacteriophages --- MALDI-MS --- Staphylococcus --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- Kayvirus --- Viral proteins --- bacteriophage --- therapy --- phage therapy --- bacterial disease --- infection --- target selection --- Bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- resistance --- adaptation --- prophage --- production --- regulation --- phage therapy --- viral genomes --- best practices --- IND --- high-throughput sequencing --- bacteriophages --- phages --- food safety --- foodborne illness --- phage therapy --- history of science --- science communication --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- sustainable agriculture --- zoonosis --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- experimental therapy --- phage cocktails --- anti-phage antibodies --- prophage --- immunomodulation --- phage therapy --- evolution --- bacterial resistance --- virulence --- Listeria ivanovii --- bacteriophages --- alginate --- production --- disinfection --- phagodisinfection --- virus–host interactions --- bacteriophage efficacy --- gastrointestinal tract --- phage therapy --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- antimicrobial resistance --- antibiotic --- global health --- developing countries --- infectious disease --- bacteriophage --- phage --- phage therapy --- phage-resistance --- phage therapy --- bacterial infection --- capsule depolymerase --- antibiotic --- animal model --- bacterial resistance --- bacteriophage --- immunology --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- human host --- phage-human host interaction --- bacterial infection --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophage --- antibiotic therapy --- phage therapy --- cases report --- abortive infection --- prophage --- adsorption --- Enterococcus --- rhamnopolysaccharide --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- Staphylococcus aureus --- biofilm --- antimicrobial --- frequency of resistance --- phage sensitivity --- resistance management --- nontraditional antibacterial --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- antibiotic resistance --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Brussels --- Belgium --- phage biocontrol --- patent landscape --- crop production --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- multidrug-resistant bacteria --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage therapy --- compassionate use --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- PTMP --- ATMP --- regulatory framework --- pharmaceutical paradigm shift --- clinical trial --- magistral formula --- personalized medicine --- phage therapy --- E. faecalis --- OrthoMCL --- antimicrobial resistance --- capsule --- Galleria mellonella --- Klebsiella pneumoniae --- phage therapy --- n/a --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage --- personalised medicines --- phage therapy --- pharmaceutical legislation --- regulatory framework

Enteric Viruses in Aquatic Environments

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285686 / 9783039285693 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-569-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue contains one review and five original articles, all of which address cutting-edge research in the field of water and environmental virology. The review article by Gerba and Betancourt summarizes the current status and future needs for the development of virus detection methods in water reuse systems, especially focusing on methods to assess the infectivity of enteric viruses. Original papers cover a variety of research topics, such as an environmental monitoring survey of group A rotaviruses in sewage and oysters in Japan, the occurrence and genetic diversity of noroviruses and rotaviruses in a wastewater reclamation system in China, the detection of viruses and their indicators in tanker water and its sources in Nepal, integrated culture next-generation sequencing to identify the diversity of F-specific RNA coliphages in wastewater, and the development of a portable collection and detection method for viruses from ambient air and its application to a wastewater treatment plant.

Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada

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ISBN: 9783039280049 9783039280056 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-005-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Canada continues to have a rich history of ground-breaking research in drug delivery within academic institutions, pharmaceutical industry and the biotechnology community.

Keywords

doxorubicin --- MG63 --- Vitamin D --- DOX-Vit D --- hypoxia-induced chemoresistance --- cisplatin --- polymeric micelle --- EGFR-targeted therapy --- STAT3 --- HIF-1 --- GE11 peptide --- pharmacological Inhibitors of HIF-1 and STAT3 --- combination therapy --- pharmacokinetics --- antibodies --- radiolabeling --- biodistribution --- mouse models --- oral formulation --- amphotericin B --- fungal infections --- parasitic infections --- developing world --- drug delivery --- liposomes --- drug delivery systems --- innovation --- lipid nanoparticles --- Metaplex --- triggered drug release --- liposomes --- ultrasound --- magnetic fields --- radiation --- oral delivery --- biological barriers --- co-delivery --- throughput --- sustained delivery --- phospholipid complex --- rosmarinic acid --- bioaccessibility --- dissolution --- TNO gastrointestinal model --- gastrointestinal simulator --- phytosterols --- tocopherols --- liposomes --- canola oil deodorizer distillate --- model orange juice --- virus --- plant --- bacteriophage --- phage display --- drug discovery --- encapsulation --- drug delivery --- blood-brain barrier --- intra-arterial chemotherapy --- malignant gliomas --- primary central nervous system lymphomas --- transdermal drug delivery --- Canada --- skin --- permeation enhancers --- oral, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma --- targeted therapies --- drug delivery systems --- nanoparticles --- controlled drug delivery --- circadian clock --- chronotherapy --- precision medicine --- cationic gemini surfactant --- melphalan --- inclusion complex --- ROESY NMR spectroscopy --- 3D spheroid --- drug-resistant melanoma --- liposome --- water miscible solvents --- remote loading --- staurosporine --- cancer --- gambogic acid --- loading gradients --- mefloquine --- child friendly formulation --- blood-brain barrier (BBB) --- drug delivery --- transient modulation --- HAV6 cadherin peptide --- adenanthin --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- medulloblastoma --- drug delivery --- pharmaceutics --- drug development --- formulation and dosage form development --- translational research --- biologicals --- small molecules --- clinical trials --- pharmacokinetics --- medical devices --- route of administration --- nifedipine --- emulsion --- flavonoids --- topical formulation --- quercetin --- photostabilizers

Virus Bioinformatics

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218820 9783039218837 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-883-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Virus bioinformatics is evolving and succeeding as an area of research in its own right, representing the interface of virology and computer science. Bioinformatic approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks have become central to virology research, and have been successfully used to detect, control, and treat infections of humans and animals. As part of the Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), we have published this Special Issue on Virus Bioinformatics.

Keywords

bioinformatics --- virus --- comparative genomics --- software --- Base-By-Base --- BBB --- poxvirus --- ASFV --- MSA --- foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) --- bovine soft palate --- nasopharynx --- transcriptomics --- proteomics --- bioinformatics --- virus-host interaction --- innate immune system --- interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) --- cellular immunity --- codon frequency distribution --- HPV58 --- minor capsid protein --- TLR agonist --- prophylaxis --- virus --- infection --- fluorescent reporter protein --- image quantification --- Hepatitis C virus --- Yellow Fever Virus --- polyomavirus --- Coxsackievirus B4 --- bivalve --- virome --- RNA-seq --- RNA viruses --- sncRNA --- ADAR --- RNAi --- Marek’s disease virus (MDV) --- RNA-seq --- transcriptome --- splicing --- polycistronic viral transcripts --- primary B cells --- RB1B --- CVI988/Rispens --- ICP0 --- DNA replication --- ori --- mitochondria --- Rickettsia --- gram-positive bacteria --- APMV --- Mimivirus --- giant virus --- eukaryogenesis --- flavivirus --- non-coding RNA --- secondary structure --- endogenous viral elements --- bioinformatics --- horizontal gene transfer --- virus-to-host gene transfer --- HMM --- tobacco mosaic virus --- Drosophila --- capsid protein --- deep sequencing --- virus genomics --- hepatitis C virus --- variant calling --- sequence interpretation --- drug resistance --- bioinformatics --- alignment --- assembly --- taxonomic classification --- time series --- data transformation --- DWT --- DFT --- PAA --- data compression --- compressive genomics --- RNAseq --- honey bees --- deformed wing virus --- quasispecies --- apiary pests --- recombination --- mRNA structure --- structure database --- secondary structure --- viral mRNA --- subVOG --- structurally related --- RNA structure --- structurally homogenous --- structurally related --- mRNA families --- Amebae viruses --- viral evolution --- protein domains --- mimivirus --- dsdna viruses --- translation machinery --- pandoravirus --- NCLDV --- virology --- virus bioinformatics --- software --- systems virology --- metagenomics --- virome --- viral taxonomy --- virus classification --- genome evolution --- bacteriophage --- virosphere --- chemical organization theory --- influenza A --- virus dynamics modeling --- complex networks analysis --- viral metagenome --- groundwater --- aquifer --- AquaDiva --- sequencing library preparation --- virus proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- virus diagnostics --- data analysis --- targeted proteomics --- peptide selection --- parallel reaction monitoring

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