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Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

High Availability and Scalability of Mainframe Environments using System z and z/OS as example

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ISBN: 9783731500223 Year: Pages: XVI, 322 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000034624 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Mainframe computers are the backbone of industrial and commercial computing, hosting the most relevant and critical data of businesses. One of the most important mainframe environments is IBM System z with the operating system z/OS. This book introduces mainframe technology of System z and z/OS with respect to high availability and scalability. It highlights their presence on different levels within the hardware and software stack to satisfy the needs for large IT organizations.

Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutrition in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783038423850 9783038423843 Year: Pages: XII, 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-30 09:18:22
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Nutrient cycling is essential for maintaining nutrient supply to forest plants and for enhancing forest productivity. Nutrient cycling is also strongly linked to greenhouse gas emissions and thus to global climate change. Nutrient cycling and plant nutrition can be severely affected by anthropogenic and natural disturbance regimes. This Special Issue will provide an avenue to publish recent progress on research on nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in forest ecosystems and how nutrient cycling and plant nutrition are affected by disturbance regimes such as harvesting, atmospheric deposition and climate change.

Plant Nutrient Dynamics in Stressful Environments

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ISBN: 9783038970644 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-064-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-20 11:19:35
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The papers included in this special issue cover a broad range of aspects ranging from genetics and breeding to crop production in the field. Climate change, intensified agriculture, modifications of land use, or pollution are often accompanied by larger fluctuations including extreme events. The growing world’s population and nutrient deficiencies in agricultural products for human or animal nutrition, or pollutants in harvested products in some regions (quality of yield), are important points to be integrated in a comprehensive analysis aimed at supporting agriculture on the way into a challenging future. It is therefore necessary to develop suitable models to identify potentials and risks. Instabilities (e.g., caused by climatic factors or pests) should be detected as early as possible to initiate corrections in the nutrient supply or in other growth conditions. Sensitive detection systems for nutrient disorders in the field can facilitate this task, and are therefore, highly desirable

Rampage Shootings and Gun Control

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ISBN: 9781138630437 9781315209425 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102664
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-26 11:21:03
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While the causes of rampage violence have been analysed thoroughly in diverse academic disciplines, we hardly know anything about the factors that affect their consequences for public policy. This book addresses rampage shootings in Western Europe and their conditional impact on politicization and policy change in the area of gun control. The author sets out to unravel the factors that facilitate or impede the access of gun control to the political agenda in the wake of rampage shootings and analyses why some political debates lead to profound shifts of the policy status quo, while others peter out without any legislative reactions. In so doing, the book not only contributes to the theoretical literature on crisis-induced policy making, but also provides a wealth of case-study evidence on rampage shootings as empirical phenomena.

Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times

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ISBN: 9783038979982 9783038979999 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-999-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Eating Disorders have traditionally been considered apart from public health concerns about increasing obesity. It is evident that these problems are, however, related in important ways. Comorbid obesity and eating disorder is increasing at a faster rate than either obesity or eating disorders alone and one in five people with obesity also presents with an Eating Disorder, commonly but not limited to Binge Eating Disorder. New disorders have emerged such as normal weight or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. However research and practice too often occurs in parallel with a failure to understand the weight disorder spectrum and consequences of co-morbidity that then contributes to poorer outcomes for people living with a larger size and an Eating Disorder. Urgently needed are trials that will inform more effective assessment, treatment and care where body size and eating disorder symptoms are both key to the research question.

Keywords

obesity risk --- mothers --- women --- young children --- socioecological --- obesity --- eating disorders --- binge eating --- dieting --- treatment --- the Roma --- nurse --- overweight --- obesity --- health education --- lifestyle factors --- nutrition --- cultural features --- spinal cord injury --- athlete --- energy availability --- nutrient deficiency --- low energy availability --- bone mineral density --- para athlete --- menstrual dysfunction --- Female Athlete Triad --- Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) --- binge eating --- questionnaire --- psychometric --- eating disorders --- obesity --- obesity --- weight loss --- bariatric surgery --- eating behaviour --- psychology --- Bulimia Nervosa --- binge-eating disorder --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders --- International Classification of Diseases --- biofeedback --- EEG-Neurofeedback --- fMRI-Neurofeedback --- eating disorders --- psychophysiology --- eating disorders-related symptoms --- loss of control eating --- obesity --- BMI --- adolescent --- females --- family functioning --- energy intake --- physical fitness --- visceral adipose tissue --- obesity --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- physical activity --- exercise --- bulimia --- binge eating disorder --- feeding behavior --- cognition --- obesity --- event-related potential --- P3 --- children --- eating disorders --- eating behavior --- feeding practices --- obesity --- EEG --- frequency bands --- obesity --- brain activity --- impulsivity --- children --- eating disorders --- obesity --- prevention --- food industry --- food environment --- food policy --- executive function --- obesity --- binge-eating disorder --- food addiction --- addictive-like eating --- dietary patterns --- body satisfaction --- orthorexia nervosa --- students --- binge-eating disorder --- BED --- obesity --- binge-type eating --- neuromedin U receptor 2 --- NMUR2 --- nucleus accumbens --- ventral tegmental area --- usability study --- online health intervention --- adolescents --- school setting --- eating disorders --- overweight --- prevention --- engagement --- E-Mental Health --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- weight --- dieting --- treatment

Progress in Water Footprint Assessment

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210381 9783039210398 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-039-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Water Footprint Assessment is a young research field that considers how freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution relate to consumption, production, and trade patterns. This book presents a wide range of studies within this new field. It is argued that collective and coordinated action - at different scale levels and along all stages of commodity supply chains - is necessary to bring about more sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use. The presented studies range from farm to catchment and country level, and show how different actors along the supply chain of final commodities can contribute to more sustainable water use in the chain.

Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance

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ISBN: 9783039283620 / 9783039283637 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-363-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Athletes and their support personnel are constantly seeking evidence-informed recommendations to enhance athletic performance during competition and to optimize training-induced adaptations. Accordingly, nutritional and supplementation strategies are commonplace when seeking to achieve these aims, with such practices being implemented before, during, or after competition and/or training in a periodized manner. Performance nutrition is becoming increasingly specialized and needs to consider the diversity of athletes and the nature of the competitions. This Special Issue, Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance, describes recent advances in these areas.

The Role of MicroRNAs in Plants

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ISBN: 9783039287307 / 9783039287314 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-731-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Discovered in plants at the turn of the century, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be fundamental to many aspects of plant biology. These small (20–24 nt) regulatory RNAs are derived via processing from longer imperfect double-stranded RNAs. They are then incorporated into silencing complexes, which they guide to (m)RNAs of high sequence complementarity, resulting in gene silencing outcomes, either via RNA degradation and/or translational inhibition. Some miRNAs are ancient, being present in all species of land plants and controlling fundamental processes such as phase change, organ polarity, flowering, and leaf and root development. However, there are many more miRNAs that are much less conserved and with less understood functions. This Special Issue contains seven research papers that span from understanding the function of a single miRNA family to examining how the miRNA profiles alter during abiotic stress or nutrient deficiency. The possibility of circular RNAs in plants acting as miRNA decoys to inhibit miRNA function is investigated, as was the hierarchical roles of miRNA biogenesis factors in the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis. Three reviews cover the potential of miRNAs for agronomic improvement of maize, the role of miRNA-triggered secondary small RNAs in plants, and the potential function of an ancient plant miRNA.

Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

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