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Synthetic and Biosynthetic Approaches to Marine Natural Products

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ISBN: 9783039284665 9783039284672 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-467-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Marine natural products containing a heterocyclic moiety in their structure are present in a wide variety of sponges, corals, algae, and fungi. Many of them show important biological activities such as cytotoxic properties against several cancer cell lines. Their challenging chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have developed various synthetic approaches. This Special Issue presents some examples of new synthetic or biosynthetic methodologies to access this type of marine natural drug.

Carotenoids

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ISBN: 9783039218646 9783039218653 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-865-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of natural pigments, consisting of more than 750 compounds. They are mostly yellow, orange, or red in color, due to the system of conjugated double bonds. This structural element is also responsible for the good antioxidant properties of many carotenoids. Carotenoids have shown numerous biological activities (not only as provitamin A), e.g., preventive properties of fruits and vegetables. As lipophilic compounds, their uptake and storage in the body are dependent on various conditions. In vitro and in vivo data showed stimulating and inhibitory effects of matrix compounds on bioaccessibility and bioavailability of carotenoids.

Keywords

?-carotene --- lycopene --- antioxidants --- free radicals --- ageing --- fruit --- vegetables --- ?-carotene --- HIV --- nelfinavir --- interaction --- pharmacokinetics --- carotenoids --- astaxanthin --- oxidative stress --- antioxidant --- chelating compound --- metal ions --- antireductant --- antiradical --- cationic lipid --- carotenoid --- antisense oligonucleotide --- exon skipping --- Duchenne muscular dystrophy --- ?-carotene --- lutein --- chlorophyll --- spent coffee grounds --- soil amendment --- lettuce --- accelerated solvent extraction --- pressurized fluid extraction --- ethanol --- carrots --- ?-carotene --- antioxidants --- marine carotenoids --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- cardiovascular disease --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- antioxidant synergism --- antioxidant antagonism --- free radical kinetics --- dye-sensitized solar cells --- carotenoid and chlorophyll derivatives --- singlet-triplet annihilation --- carotenoids --- xanthophylls --- fluorocarotenoids --- chlorocarotenoids --- bromocarotenoids --- iodocarotenoids --- silicon carotenoids --- nitrogen carotenoids --- sulfur carotenoids --- selenium carotenoids --- iron carotenoids --- carotenoids --- xanthophylls --- cancer chemoprevention --- mechanisms --- B16F10 --- ?-carotene --- PC-3 --- SK-Hep-1 --- VEGF --- oxidative stress --- ROS --- RNS --- antioxidants --- carotenoids --- cardiovascular disease --- carotenoids --- hydrophilic --- esterification --- PEG conjugates --- cycloaddition --- carotenoid --- stability --- feed processing --- storage --- carotenoids --- extraction --- solubility --- injection solvent --- liquid chromatography

Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039218387 / 9783039218394 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-839-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Cyanobacteria are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic prokaryotes. Their occurrence has been increasing worldwide, due to anthropogenic activities and climate change. Several cyanobacterial species are able to synthesize a high number of bioactive molecules, among them, cyanotoxins (microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, nodularin, etc.), which are considered a health concern. For risk assessment of cyanotoxins, more scientific knowledge is required to perform adequate hazard characterization, exposure evaluation and, finally, risk characterization of these toxins. This Special Issue “Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges” presents new research or review articles related to different aspects of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, and contributes to providing new toxicological data and methods for a more realistic risk assessment.

Keywords

cylindrospermopsin --- in vitro --- cytotoxicity --- oxidative stress --- genotoxicity --- microcystins --- taste-and-odor compounds --- water source --- drinking water treatment plant --- cyanobacterial thresholds --- arctic --- benthic mats --- cyanotoxins --- ELISA --- 16S rRNA gene --- apoptosis --- microcystin-LR (MC-LR) --- reproductive toxicity --- resveratrol --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- Aphanizomenon flos-aquae --- blue-green algae supplements --- cyanotoxins --- microcystin --- cylindrospermopsin --- saxitoxin --- cylindrospermopsin --- monoclonal antibody --- time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay --- method validation --- detection --- cyanobacteria --- cyanotoxins --- nutrient enrichment --- akinetes --- harmful algal blooms --- PCR --- phylogenetic analyses --- microcystin-LR --- Procambarus clarkii --- energy budget --- astaxanthin --- cylindrospermopsin --- anatoxin-a --- PSP toxins --- microcystins --- cyanobacteria --- Nostocales --- drinking water --- marine cyanobacteria --- cyanotoxins --- marine sponges --- secondary metabolites --- marine natural compounds --- bioassays --- Artemia salina --- Paracentrotus lividus --- hemolytic essay --- reservoir --- Yangtze estuary --- 16S rRNA gene sequencing --- shotgun metagenomic sequencing --- bacterial community --- microbial metabolisms --- [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR --- Lithobates catesbeianus --- tadpoles --- exposure --- Histopathological evaluation --- microcystins --- cylindrospermopsin --- method validation --- UPLC-MS/MS --- lettuce --- genotoxicity --- mutagenicity --- Cylindrospermopsin --- Microcystin-LR --- mixture

Self-Organizing Nanovectors for Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783039284283 / 9783039284290 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-429-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Nanomedicine represents one of the most investigated areas in the last two decades in the field of pharmaceutics. Several nanovectors have been developed and a growing number of products have been approved. It is well known that many biomaterials are able to self-organize under controlled conditions giving rise nanostructures. Polymers, lipids, inorganic materials, peptides and proteins, and surfactants are examples of such biomaterials and the self-assembling property can be exploited to design nanovectors that are useful for drug delivery. The self-organization of nanostructures is an attractive approach to preparing nanovectors, avoiding complex and high-energy-consuming preparation methods, and, in some cases, facilitating drug loading procedures. Moreover, preparations based on these biocompatible and pharmaceutical grade biomaterials allow an easy transfer from the lab to the industrial scale. This book reports ten different works, and a review, aiming to cover multiple strategies and pharmaceutical applications in the field of self-organizing nanovectors for drug delivery.

Carotenoids and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218325 9783039218332 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-833-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of approximately 600 compounds synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These pigments are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain animal products such as eggs and salmon, being responsible for their colorful appearance. The bioactive properties of certain carotenoids in human health are clear, as some of these compounds have antioxidant properties and serve as the only precursors of vitamin A in nature. The aim of this Special Issue entitled “Carotenoids and Human Health” is to provide the scientific community with an updated perspective of this exciting and growing research area. We compiled 19 papers from some of the most prominent scientists in the carotenoid field, including seven literature reviews and 12 original publication, covering topics such as cancer, obesity, vision, cognitive function, and skin health.

Keywords

carotenoids --- lycopene --- gastric cancer --- H. pylori --- smoking --- case-control study --- Korea --- cancer-related cognitive impairment --- cognition --- carotenoid --- memory --- inflammation --- mango by-products --- lutein --- ?-carotene --- ?-tocopherol --- mangiferin --- food ingredients --- astaxanthin --- Akkermansia --- alcoholic fatty liver disease --- inflammation --- gut microbiota --- lycopene --- carotene --- retinoic acid --- retinoid --- vitamin A --- RAR --- RXR --- ?-carotene --- ?-carotene --- ?-cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- lutein --- provitamin A --- retinol --- vitamin A --- breastfeeding --- new-born --- full-term mothers --- preterm mothers --- xanthophylls --- carotenes --- lutein --- colostrum --- mature milk --- ?-Cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- Caenorhabditis elegans --- fat reduction --- oxidative stress --- transcriptomic analysis --- metabolic syndrome --- aging --- prostate cancer --- tomato --- lycopene --- androgen --- cell culture --- animal --- obesity --- hippocampus --- nutrition --- overweight --- carotenoids --- Phaeodactylum tricornutum --- microalgae --- fucoxanthin --- eicosapentanoic acid --- obesity --- browning --- brown adipose tissue --- carotenes --- xanthophylls --- bioavailability --- intestine --- membrane transporters --- Vitamin A --- adipocyte --- ?-carotene oxygenase 1 --- hypertension --- carotenoids --- tomato extract --- lycopene --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- bioavailability --- glaucoma --- antioxidants --- oxidative stress --- macular pigment --- lutein --- colourless carotenoids --- cosmeceuticals --- functional foods --- nutraceuticals --- nutricosmetics --- photoprotection --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- public health --- nutrition --- chronic disease --- lutein --- zeaxanthin --- lycopene --- beta-carotene --- alpha-carotene --- beta-cryptoxanthin --- adipocytes --- adipose tissue --- brain --- carotenoids --- obesity --- retinoids --- carotenoids --- bioactive compounds

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