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Chapter 7 Vitamin C in Pneumonia and Sepsis (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138337992 Year: Pages: 26 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-28 23:57:28
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In humans, ascorbic acid is an essential vitamin, anti-oxidant and co-factor of a variety of metal ion-dependent enzymatic reactions. In this review, the transport of L-ascorbic acid is described from food to target cells. Transport of ascorbic acid across the plasma membrane is facilitated by members of the SLC23 family, SLC23A1/SVCT1 and SLC23A2/SVCT2. We present in silico models of these transporters that provide new insights into the structure of the SLC23 family. While SVCT1 is mainly responsible for uptake of ascorbic acid from the intestine into the blood and for reabsorption in the kidney, the more broadly expressed transporter SVCT2 delivers ascorbic acid into tissues that are in high demand of the vitamin. The oxidized form of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), is a substrate of the GLUT transporters belonging to the SLC2 family. They play important roles in ascorbic acid recycling, such as in the brain and in erythrocytes. Ascorbic acid serves as an essential co-factor of metal ion-dependent enzymes, keeping their metal ions in the reduced state. In addition, it serves as an effective antioxidant in cells with high metabolic activity such as neurons. Thus, it is not too surprising that changes in expression and function of the SVCTs have nutritional and pathological consequences such as during ageing, malnutrition and chronic alcohol abuse or in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and chronic inflammation diseases. In the future, SVCT1 and SVCT2 may furthermore prove useful as drug delivery systems, to enhance transport of novel pharmaceutical agents more efficiently across the intestinal epithelium and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

Chapter 3 Vitamin C Alimentation via SLC Solute Carriers (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138337992 Year: Pages: 18 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-28 23:57:37
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Although mortality rates from pneumonia and sepsis are decreasing in many parts of the world, the incidence of these conditions continues to rise, likely due to an increasingly ageing population. Case reports and observational studies indicate a strong association between vitamin C status and infectious conditions, with vitamin C deficiency predisposing individuals to infections, and conversely, infections precipitating a diminished vitamin C status. The requirements for vitamin C increase with the severity of the infectious condition, with gram amounts required to normalize the vitamin C status of critically ill patients. Over the past few years, there has been renewed interest in the role that vitamin C may play in severe infectious conditions. Vitamin C has a plethora of physiological effects, primarily due to its activity as a cofactor for a growing group of biosynthetic and regulatory enzymes, with the potential to regulate thousands of genes and cell signaling pathways. Small intervention studies have indicated that administration of gram doses of vitamin C to patients with pneumonia and sepsis improves organ function and potentially decreases mortality, although this remains to be confirmed in larger trials. The long-term quality of life outcomes of these patients also remains to be determined.

Vitamin C in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038970293 9783038970309 Year: Pages: X, 288 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 11:31:26
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Vitamin C is a pivotal water soluble electron donor in nature and an essential nutrient in man. Despite its many years as a research focus, new and increasingly regulatory functions of vitamin C in human health are continually being unravelled. This improved mechanistic insight is starting to provide rationales explaining the extensive epidemiological literature that, for decades, has consistently shown strong associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality.In this Special Issue, we include original research and literature reviews by experts in the field outlining the roles of vitamin C in early, daily and late life, as well as the roles of deficiency in cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer.

Berry Crop Production and Protection

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ISBN: 9783039210947 9783039210954 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-095-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Berry crops include, but are not limited to, the genera: Fragaria (strawberry, Rosaceae), Ribes (currant and gooseberry, Grossulariaceae), Rubus (brambles: raspberry and blackberry; Rosaceae), Vaccinium (blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry; Ericaceae) and Vitis (grapes, Vitaceae). The significant role of these fruits in maintaining human health has increased their popularity and production, dramatically, across the world. This Special Issue of Agronomy covers berry crops in the areas of breeding, genetics, germplasm, production systems, propagation, plant and soil nutrition, pest and disease management, postharvest, health benefits, marketing and economics and other related areas. The aim will be to bring together a collection of valuable articles that will serve as a foundation of innovative ideas for production and protection of health-promoting berry crops in changed environment.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

Dietary Trace Minerals

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ISBN: 9783039283248 9783039283255 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-325-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Dietary trace minerals are pivotal and hold a key role in numerous metabolic processes. Trace mineral deficiencies (except for iodine, iron, and zinc) do not often develop spontaneously in adults on ordinary diets; infants are more vulnerable because their growth is rapid and their intake varies. Trace mineral imbalances can result from hereditary disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson disease), kidney dialysis, parenteral nutrition, restrictive diets prescribed for people with inborn errors of metabolism, or various popular diet plans. The Special Issue “Dietary Trace Minerals” comprised 13 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the dietary intake of trace minerals, as well as their effect on the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. Original contributions and literature reviews further demonstrated the crucial and central part that dietary trace minerals play in human health and development. This editorial provides a brief and concise overview of the content of the Dietary Trace Minerals Special Issue.

Synthesis and Applications of Nanomaterials for Photocatalysis and Electrocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783039288311 / 9783039288328 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-832-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Heterogeneous catalysis, exploiting photo- and electrochemical reactions, has expanded rapidly in recent decades, having undergone various developments, especially from both energetic and environmental points of view. Photocatalysis plays a pivotal role in such applications as water splitting and air/water remediation. Electrocatalysis can be found in a large array of research fields, including the development of electroanalytical sensors, wastewater treatment, and energy conversion devices (e.g., batteries, fuel and solar cells, etc.). Therefore, the fine control of the synthetic procedures, together with extensive physicochemical characterisations of the tailor-made catalytic nanomaterials, are of fundamental importance to achieving the desired results. The present book will include recent enhancements in oxide/metal nanoparticles for photocatalytic and electrocatalytic applications, especially in the fields of pollutants abatement and energy conversion.

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