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Genetic Determinants of Human Longevity

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ISBN: 9783039216789 9783039216796 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-679-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

In the last two decades, due to the continuous increase of lifespans in Westernsocieties, and the consequent growing of the elderly population, have witnessedan increase in the number of studies on biological and molecular factors able topromote healthy aging and reach longevity. The study of the genetic componentof human longevity demonstrated that it accounts for 25% of intra populationphenotype variance. The efforts made to characterize the genetic determinantssuggested that the maintenance of cellular integrity, inflammation, oxidativestress response, DNA repair, as well as the use of nutrients, represent the mostimportant pathways correlated with a longer lifespan. However, although aplethora of variants were indicated to be associated with human longevity, onlyvery few were successfully replicated in different populations, probably becauseof population specificity, missing heritability as well as a complex interactionamong genetic factors with lifestyle and cultural factors, which modulate theindividual chance of living longer. Thus, many challenges remain to be addressedin the search for the genetic components of human longevity. This Special Issue isaimed to unify the progress in the analysis of the genetic determinants of humanlongevity, to take stock of the situation and point to future directions of the field.We invite submissions for reviews, research articles, short-communicationsdealing with genetic association studies in human longevity, including all types ofgenetic variation, as well as the characterization of longevity-related genes.

Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with Focus on Systemic Inflammation

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ISBN: 9783039282142 9783039282159 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-215-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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With cardiometabolic diseases still topping the list of mortality causes and in facing the obesity and diabetes epidemic, there remains a great need to better understand the pathophysiological derangements underlying these conditions. During the past years, it has become increasingly appreciated that low grade systemic inflammation is a common hallmark of cardiometabolic disorders—not only concerning diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but also involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently developed high-throughput laboratory techniques for lipidomics and metabolomics have enabled researchers to discern novel crosstalk pathways between lipid phenotypes and enhanced chronic inflammation. With this Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine, entitled “Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with a Focus on Systemic Inflammation”, researchers were invited to submit original papers and reviews on various topics, in particular, at the interface of lipid metabolism and inflammation.

Keywords

carbamoylation --- chronic kidney disease --- lipoproteins --- infrared spectroscopy --- Breast cancer --- cholesterol --- 27-hydroxycholesterol --- HDL --- LDL --- cholesterol-lowering therapies --- biomarker --- anti-apolipoprotein A-1 antibodies --- renal transplant recipient --- HDL function --- prognosis --- cholesterol --- acute coronary syndrome --- biomarkers --- anti-apolipoprotein A-I autoantibodies --- GRACE score --- C-statistics --- adipose tissue --- ANGPTL3 --- ANGPTL4 --- ANGPTL8 --- lipid metabolism --- cholesterol efflux capacity --- coronary artery calcium score --- obesity --- anti-apoA-1 IgG --- autoantibodies --- cardiovascular disease --- C-reactive protein --- HDL --- paraoxonase-1 --- cardiovascular disease --- myocardial infarction --- diabetic cardiomyopathy --- cytokines --- interleukin 1? --- inflammation --- CANTOS --- canakinumab --- retinol binding protein 4 --- retinol --- lipoprotein subfractions --- large VLDL --- small LDL --- Type 2 diabetes mellitus --- metabolic syndrome --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- betaine --- trimethylamine N-oxide related metabolites --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgG --- familial hypercholesterolemia --- cholesterol homeostasis --- foam cells --- miR-33a --- TLR2/4 --- passive diffusion --- microvesicles --- inflammation --- lipoproteins --- LDL cholesterol --- microparticles --- cardiovascular disease --- platelets --- endothelial cells --- leukocytes --- atherothrombosis --- HDL --- lipids --- inflammation --- atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) --- cardiovascular events --- GlycA --- non-alcoholic fatty liver --- sodium intake --- insulin resistance --- fatty liver index --- hepatic steatosis index --- HOMA-IR --- gut microbiota --- lipoprotein metabolism --- metabolic disorder --- adiponectin --- free thiols --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- phospholipid transfer protein activity --- triglycerides --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- large very low density lipoproteins --- ANGPTL8 --- visceral adipose tissue (VAT) --- obesity --- endothelial cells

New Lipid Lowering Therapies for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Lessons from the Past and Future Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039216765 9783039216772 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-677-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

This book illustrates some of the most recent research efforts that have been made in lowering plasma cholesterol levels in patients with CVD. Selected articles aimed to illuminate advances and urgent challenges in the management of CVD, including disease management using statin-combined therapeutic strategies.

Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease

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ISBN: 9783039214075 9783039214082 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-408-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurological disease that affects tens of millions of people, in addition to their carers. Hallmark features of AD include plaques composed of amyloid beta, as well as neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. However, despite more than a century of study, the cause of Alzheimer’s disease remains unresolved. The roles of amyloid beta and tau are being questioned and other causes of AD are now under consideration. The contributions of researchers, model organisms, and various hypotheses will be examined in this Special Issue.

Keywords

?-secretase --- amyloid beta --- calcium signaling --- drug target discovery --- endoplasmic reticulum --- inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor --- ion channel --- oxidative stress --- ryanodine receptor --- therapy --- amyloid-? oligomer --- protein aggregation --- A?O receptors --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neurodegeneration --- amyloid ? --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cognitive function --- dairy products --- dementia --- inflammation --- microglia --- Alzheimer’s disease --- yeast --- Tau --- amyloid ? --- ubiquitin --- aggregation --- oligomerization --- prion --- CDK5R1 --- lncRNAs --- Alzheimer’s disease --- miR-15/107 --- NEAT1 --- HOTAIR --- MALAT1 --- heat shock response --- heat shock protein --- Alzheimer’s disease --- beta amyloid --- yeast --- Alzheimer’s disease --- complement receptor 1 --- CR1 length polymorphism --- CR1 density --- complement C3b/C4b receptor --- complement --- dementia --- molecular biology --- neurosciences --- genetic risk --- Alzheimer’s disease --- brain glucose metabolism --- neuronal differentiation --- neuronal degeneration --- Prolyl isomerases --- Pin1 --- type 2 diabetes --- type 3 diabetes --- miR-34c --- dendritic spine --- Alzheimer’s disease --- Alzheimer’s disease --- positron emission tomography (PET) --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cystathionine-?-lyase CTH gene --- DNA methylation --- epigenetics --- epigenome-wide association study --- methylome --- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR gene --- nutrition --- S-adenosylmethionine --- vitamin B complex --- Alzheimer’s disease --- sleep disturbance --- sleep fragmentation --- slow-wave sleep --- amyloid beta --- tau --- proteostasis --- default-mode network --- cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia --- APOE gene --- apolipoprotein E --- DNA methylation --- mild cognitive impairment --- Hispanics

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