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Oncolytic Viruses - Genetically Engineering the Future of Cancer Therapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453580 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-358-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The ability to genetically engineer oncolytic viruses in order to minimize side effects and improve the selective targeting of tumor cells has opened up novel opportunities for treating cancer. Understanding the mechanisms involved and the complex interaction between the viruses and the immune system will undoubtedly help guide the development of new strategies. Theranostic biomarkers to monitor these therapies in clinical trials serve an important need in this innovative field and demand further research.

Bioactive Compounds from Microbes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451852 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-185-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Microorganisms have had a long and surprising history. They were “invisible” until invention of microscope in the 17th century. Until that date, although they were extensively (but inconsciously) employed in food preservation, beer and wine fermentation, cheese, vinegar, yogurt and bread making, as well as being the causative agents of infectious diseases, they were considered as “not-existing”. The work of Pasteur in the middle of the 19th century revealed several biological activities performed by microorganisms including fermentations and pathogenicity. Due to the urgent issue to treat infectious diseases (the main cause of death at those times) the “positive potential” of the microbial world has been neglected for about one century. Once the fight against the “evil” strains was fulfilled also thanks to the antibiotics, industry began to appreciate bacteria’s beneficial characteristics and exploit selected strains as starters for both food fermentations and aroma, enzyme and texturing agent production. However, it was only at the end of the 20th century that the probiotic potential of some bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria was fully recognized. Very recently, apart from the probiotic activity of in toto bacteria, attention has begun to be directed to the chemical mediators of the probiotic effect. Thanks also to the improvement of techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, several bioactive compounds are continuously being discovered. Bioactive molecules produced by bacteria, yeasts and virus-infected cells proved to be important for improving or impairing human health. The most important result of last years’ research concerns the discovery that a very complex network of signals allows communication between organisms (from intra-species interactions to inter-kingdom signaling). Based on these findings a completely new approach has arisen: the system biology standpoind. Actually, the different organisms colonizing a certain environmental niche are not merely interacting with each other as individuals but should be considered as a whole complex ecosystem continuously exchanging information at the molecular level. In this context, this topic issue explores both antagonistic compounds (i.e. antibiotics) and “multiple function” cooperative molecules improving the physiological status of both stimulators and targets of this network. From the applicative viewpoint, these molecules could be hopefully exploited to develop new pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals for improving human health.

Natural Killer Cells in Human Diseases: Friends or Foes?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454044 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-404-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that share some features with adaptive immune cells like T cells. They are well known for their importance to control viral infections and tumor development, but also intracellular bacterial and parasitic infections. A balance between negative and positive signals transmitted via germ line-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors controls the function of NK cells. Activated NK cells respond by killing the infected or tumor cells without prior sensitization, and by producing cytokines and chemokines. It has been shown that NK cells cross-talk with other immune cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, can shape T cell and B cell immune responses through direct interactions as well as by virtue of their cytokine/chemokine production. NK cells can also regulate immune responses by killing other immune cells, including activated T cells, or by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines upon excessive inflammation. However, NK cells are not friends in all situations. Indeed, it has been shown in LCMV-infected murine models that, depending on the viral inoculation load, NK cells may either help fight infection or can promote chronic infection. Moreover in cancer models, it has been shown that NK cells can kill anti-tumoral T cells. Recent studies of NK cells in patients with cancer support the notion of detrimental roles of NK cells. Furthermore, studies implicate NK cells in contributing to both graft rejection and tolerance to an allograft. In some autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, NK cells may promote disease pathogenesis. The scope of this Research Topic is to present and discuss knowledge on the role of NK cells in various diseases settings: viral infections as well as other infections, cancer, transplantation, and autoimmunity. The aim is to discuss how NK cells respond during disease and specifically when, why and how NK cells can be harmful and if they exert different functions (production of specific cytokines, inhibition of other immune cells through other mechanisms beside cytotoxicity) in these situations. Which are the NK cell subsets that play beneficial or deleterious roles in these diseases? Are there different phenotypes associated with protective NK cells (e.g. antiviral, antitumoral) and NK cells involved in disease pathogenesis? How are these diverse NK cells activated and do they function primarily through direct cytotoxicity, ADCC or cytokine and chemokine production? What are the signals or interactions that can change and shape the NK cell response shifting them from protective to harmful? We thank the authors that submitted reviews and original research manuscripts that help to better understand these questions, with the aim that this will help the scientific community to determine what could be the main future research directions to better understand the role of NK cells in disease protection or development.

Marine Proteins and Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038426462 9783038426479 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:06:14
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Marine proteins and peptides have great potential application in developing pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. Proteins and peptides from marine sources are considered to be safe and inexpensive. Protein- and peptide-based drugs have been increasing in recent days to cure various diseases by serving multiple roles, such as antioxidants, anticancer drugs, antimicrobials, and anticoagulants. There are different marine sources (macroalgae, fish, shellfish, and bivalves), which possibly contain specific protein and peptides.

Pleiotropic Action of Selenium in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer, and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038976929 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-693-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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This book will cover topics related to the preparation and use of heterogeneous catalytic systems for the transformation of renewable sources, as well as of materials deriving from agro-industrial wastes and by-products. At the same time, the ever-increasing importance of bioproducts, due to the acceptance and request of consumers, makes the upgrade of biomass into chemicals and materials not only an environmental issue, but also an economical advantage.

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038978008 9783038978015 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-801-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Marine Glycosides

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ISBN: 9783038979029 9783038979036 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-903-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the publication of papers on the chemistry, biology, and potential clinical uses of marine glycosides. Indeed, more than half of the papers published in this field are less than a decade old. Glycosides have been isolated from species as diverse as algae, fungi, anthozoans, and echinoderms. Even fish of the genus Pardachirus produce glycosides, which they use as shark repellents.The major interest in these compounds as potential drugs stems from their broad spectrum of biological effects. They have been shown to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatory, and anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of marine glycosides include cell cycle suppression, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of migration, invasion, and metastasis, as well as antiangiogenesis. Marine glycosides influence membrane permeability and have been shown to influence membrane transport at the molecular level through effects on transport carriers and pumps, as well as effects on ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels. Various marine glycosides have been shown to activate sphingomyelinase and ceramide synthesis, to inhibit topoisomerase activity, receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and multidrug resistance protein activity, and to antagonize eicosanoid receptors.This Special Issue covers the entire scope of marine organism-derived glycosides that are of potential value as pharmaceutical agents or leads. These include, but are not limited to, tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, other triterpene glycosides, steroid glycosides, and glycosides of non-isoprenoid aglycones.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 / 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

Special Issue Dedicated to Late Professor Takuo Okuda. Tannins and Related Polyphenols Revisited: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biological Activities

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ISBN: 9783038978343 / 9783038978350 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-835-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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Antioxidative polyphenols represented by tannins and flavonoids are rich in numerous food sources and traditional natural medicines and currently attracting increased attention in health care and food industries because of their multiple biological activities that are favorable to human health. Commemorating the outstanding achievements on tannins by Dr. Takuo Okuda on the occasion of his passing away in December 2016, his colleagues, friends, and worldwide experts of polyphenol research have contributed 18 papers on their recent study to the Special Issue of Molecules. This book is its reprinted form. This covers reviews of structural features, historical usages, and biological activities of unique class of ellagitannins and condensed tannins, and original articles on the most up-to-date findings on the anticancer effect of green tea catechins, the antivirus effect of tannins comparing with the clinically used drugs, the analytical method of ellagitannins using quantitative NMR, the chemical structures of Hydrangea-blue complex (pigment) and condensed tannins in Ephedra sinica and purple prairie clover, and the relationship of condensed tannins in legumes and grape-marc with methane production in the in vitro ruminant system, and others. This book will be useful to natural product chemists and also to researchers in pharmaceutical and/or food industry.

Keywords

Dittrichia viscosa --- antifungal activities --- Candida spp. --- Malassezia spp. --- Microsporum canis --- Aspergillus fumigates --- Ephedra sinica --- proanthocyanidin --- oligomer --- thiolysis --- phloroglucinolysis --- TDDFT --- ECD --- neuraminidase --- inhibition --- tannins --- oseltamivir carboxylate --- zanamivir --- crystal structure --- molecular interactions --- oenothein B --- ellagitannin --- macrocyclic oligomer --- Onagraceae --- Myrtaceae --- Lythraceae --- antioxidants --- antitumor effect --- immunomodulatory effect --- anti-inflammation --- tannin composition --- purple prairie clover --- conservation method --- protein precipitation --- Escherichia coli --- Cynanchum wilfordii --- phenolic glycoside --- 2-O-?-laminaribiosyl-4-hydroxyacetophenone --- cynandione A --- thin layer chromatography --- Cynanchum auriculatum --- Acacia mearnsii bark --- wattle tannin --- proanthocyanidins --- biological activities --- tannins --- vegetable tanning --- European historic leathers --- colorimetric tests --- spectroscopy --- UV-Vis --- FTIR --- triple-negative breast cancer --- fatty acid synthase --- FASN inhibition --- polyphenolic FASN inhibitors --- (?)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate --- synthetic analogues --- apoptosis --- anticancer activity --- 1H-NMR --- quantitative NMR --- ellagitannin --- Geranium thunbergii --- geraniin --- Aluminum ion --- blue color development --- 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid --- 3-O-glucosyldelphinidin --- Hydrangea macrophylla --- ESI-mass --- metal complex --- Coreopsis lanceolata L. --- chalcone --- flavanone --- flavonol --- aurone --- Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction --- condensed tannin --- bioactivity --- methanogenesis --- grape marc --- fatty acids --- in vitro batch fermentation --- neuroprotection --- PC12 --- NGF --- differentiation --- amyloid-? peptide --- taxanes --- hormesis --- polyphenol --- bamboo leaf extract --- overlay method --- ellagitannin --- structure --- revision --- (?)-epigallocatechin gallate --- immune checkpoint --- interferon-? --- epidermal growth factor --- lung tumor --- proanthocyanidins --- condensed tannins --- thiolysis --- NMR spectroscopy --- ultrahigh-resolution negative mode MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- antioxidant --- ORAC assay --- Acacia --- forage legume --- Trapa taiwanensis Nakai --- hydrolysable tannin --- stability --- gallotannin --- ellagitannin

Links between Fibrogenesis and Cancer: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039217069 / 9783039217076 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-707-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Tissue fibrosis may occur for unknown causes or be the consequence of many pathological conditions including chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, graft rejection, or malignancy. On the other hand, malignant tumors have been identified in fibrotic tissues decades ago, and now accumulating evidence suggests that fibrotic lesions enhance the risk of cancer in several organs such as liver, lungs, and breast. Disruption of an organ parenchymal cells and of its normal structural scaffold during tissue fibrogenesis appears to induce loss of cell polarity, promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation that may eventually lead to cancer development. Many cellular and molecular abnormalities including aberrant expression of microRNAs, genetic and epigenetic alterations, evasion or delayed apoptosis, unregulated intracellular signal pathways, and dysregulation or defective intercellular communications have been proposed to explain this link between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms of this fibrosis-to-cancer transition remain unclear. This book presents a collection of reviews and original articles summarizing recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer development in fibrotic organs.

Keywords

lung cancer --- renal injury --- fibrosis --- crizotinib --- anaplastic lymphoma kinase --- cystic formation --- pulmonary fibrosis --- butylidenephthalide --- SOX2 --- type I collagen --- bleomycin --- YAP --- TAZ --- Hippo pathway --- fibrosis --- cancer --- mechanotransduction --- TGF-? --- Wnt --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- tumor --- tumor necrosis factor ? --- cytokine --- growth factor --- inflammation --- clinical symptoms --- pathophysiology --- therapy --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- cirrhosis --- regeneration --- inflammation --- cytokines --- genetic instability --- reactive oxygen species --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) --- lung cancer (LC) --- non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) --- acute lung injury --- protein S --- apoptosis --- signal pathway --- Erk1/2 --- lipopolysaccharide --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential --- leiomyosarcoma --- myometrium --- immunohistochemistry --- marker --- pathology --- tumor --- diagnosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- tumor microenvironment --- nanoparticles --- breast cancer --- antitumor efficacy --- cirrhosis --- HBV --- HCV --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis --- lung cancer --- pathogenesis --- common pathways --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- fibrosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) --- hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) --- tumor microenvironment --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- non-alcoholic steatohepatitis --- fibrosis --- hepatic stellate cells --- extracellular matrix --- carcinogenesis --- angiogenesis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- extracellular matrix --- fibrosis --- heterogeneity --- interstitial fluid pressure --- metabolic reprogramming --- transforming growth factor-? --- tumor stiffness --- GPR40 --- GPR120 --- DHA --- omega-3 fatty acid --- SREBP-1 --- hepatocytes --- EMT --- lncRNA --- metastasis --- miRNA --- SMAD --- TGF-? --- targeted therapy --- tumor microenvironment --- n/a

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