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Antimicrobial peptides and Complement - Maximising the inflammatory response

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197378 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-737-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Antimicrobial peptides and complement are distinct components of the innate immune defence. While antimicrobial peptides, after cleavage of a preproprotein, have the ability to insert directly in non host membranes, complement requires a sequential enzymatic activation in the fluid phase in order to produce a transmembrane membrane attack complex. Its insertion is controlled by membrane bound regulators. Deficiencies are described for both effectors and relate to increased susceptibility of infection. In addition, however, antimicrobial peptides and complement each influence the activity of inflammatory cells as recent data in the respective research areas shows. This series of articles draws together for the entities of antimicrobial peptides and complement a balance of contributions in the areas of evolution, roles, functions and preclinical applications. By comparing and contrasting antimicrobial peptides and complement, greater cross-disciplinary appreciation will be derived for their individual and overlapping spectra of activity, circumstances of activation and their general ability to more completely inform the inflammatory and cellular response.

Antimicrobial Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038420729 9783038420736 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-073-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:29:38
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-encoded, ancient (and important) mediators of innate host defense that exert direct or indirect antimicrobial action as well as possessing other important biologic activities (e.g., neutralization of endotoxin and anti-biofilm action) that help to protect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants from invading pathogens. While the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant pathogens (and the desperate need to develop new anti-infectives) has been a recent force driving the field, interest in AMPs has an earlier origin in studies of how phagocytes kill bacteria by oxygen-independent processes. AMPs responsible for such killing of microbes by rabbit and human neutrophils were later purified by Ganz, Selsted and Lehrer, which they termed defensins; at the time of this writing, literally thousands of defensin-based publications can be found in the scientific literature! The initial reports on defensins and the earlier report by Boman’s group on the purification and action of an insect AMP represented a historical and defining point for the AMP field as they, in hindsight, demanded the recognition of AMP research as a unique discipline that has important linkages to other important fields of medicine, especially those of microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology. On a personal note, I remember conferences on phagocytes and host defense in the early 1980s where the topic of AMPs was relegated to one short session in a five day period! Now, we have hundreds of international “AMPologists” with expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and structural biology, cell biology, microbiology, pharmacology, or medicine who have built their research careers around AMPs and can now attend international conferences dedicated to advances in AMP research.

New edge of antibiotic development: antimicrobial peptides and corresponding resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193011 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-301-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Antimicrobial peptides, commonly isolated from several organisms, have been considered part of innate immune system and also as potential antimicrobial drugs. Besides its antimicrobial activity, some AMPs also have antifungal activity, inmmunomodulatory and antitumural activities. Lately not only nature has become a source of AMPs. Besides isolation of natural organisms, antimicrobial peptides might be improved or created using computational tools. This opens even more this so amazing field by creating infinite novel and remarkable possibilities. Overall the current issue highlights the relevance of such Research Topic with perspectives to develop entirely new molecules with vast application within health and agricultural field with higher affinity for its target with concomitant reduction of side effects.

Regulatory potential of post-translational modifications in bacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196104 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-610-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are widely employed by all living organisms to control the enzymatic activity, localization or stability of proteins on a much shorter time scale than the transcriptional control. In eukarya, global analyses consistently reveal that proteins are very extensively phosphorylated, acetylated and ubiquitylated. Glycosylation and methylation are also very common, and myriad other PTMs, most with a proven regulatory potential, are being discovered continuously. The emergent picture is that PTM sites on a single protein are not independent; modification of one residue often affects (positively or negatively) modification of other sites on the same protein. The best example of this complex behavior is the histone “bar-code” with very extensive cross-talk between phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation sites.Traditionally it was believed that large networks of PTMs exist only in complex eukaryal cells, which exploit them for coordination and fine-tuning of various cellular functions. PTMs have also been detected in bacteria, but the early examples focused on a few important regulatory events, based mainly on protein phosphorylation. The global importance (and abundance) of PTMs in bacterial physiology was systematically underestimated. In recent years, global studies have reported large datasets of phosphorylated, acetylated and glycosylated proteins in bacteria. Other modifications of bacterial proteins have been recently described: pupylation, methylation, sirtuin acetylation, lipidation, carboxylation and bacillithiolation. As the landscape of PTMs in bacterial cells is rapidly expanding, primarily due to advances of detection methods in mass spectrometry, our research field is adapting to comprehend the potential impact of these modifications on the cellular physiology. The field of protein phosphorylation, especially of the Ser/Thr/Tyr type, has been profoundly transformed. We have become aware that bacterial kinases phosphorylate many protein substrates and thus constitute regulatory nodes with potential for signal integration. They also engage in cross-talk and eukaryal-like mutual activation cascades. The regulatory potential of protein acetylation and glycosylation in bacteria is also rapidly emerging, and the cross-talk between acetylation and phosphorylation has been documented. This topic deals with the complexity of the PTM landscape in bacteria, and focus in particular on the physiological roles that PTMs play and methods to study them. The topic is associated to the 1st International Conference on Post-Translational Modifications in Bacteria (September 9-10, 2014, Göttingen, Germany).

Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential

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ISBN: 9783038424628 9783038424635 Year: Pages: X, 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:54:14
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Antimicrobial peptides are key defense molecules adopted by all life forms to prevent infection. They also have other beneficial effects such as boosting immune response, anticancer, and wound healing. The antiviral effects of antimicrobial peptides have laid the foundations for developing new agents to combat seasonal Flu, HIV-1, RSV, Zika, and Ebola. This eBook is constructed to systematically deal with antimicrobial peptides from a variety of natural sources, including fungi, plants, and animals (insects, fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles). It covers peptide discovery, antimicrobial activity, 3D structure, mechanisms of action and potential applications. Naturally Occurring Antimicrobial Peptides, an eBook published by the journal Pharmaceuticals, provides a helpful introduction to newcomers and refreshes the minds of veterans.

Trends in Regulatory Peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455379 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-537-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Regulatory peptides represent the most diverse and versatile family of messenger molecules. They are produced by all living organisms from bacteria to mammals. They are involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Biologically active peptides and their receptors thus constitute an unlimited source of inspiration for the development of innovative drugs and cosmetics.The present eBook is a unique collection of research articles and reviews that provide a representative examplification of the latest progress in regulatory peptide research.

Toxins in Drug Discovery and Pharmacology

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ISBN: 9783038428619 9783038428626 Year: Pages: XII, 304 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 11:37:49
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Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as untapped cocktails of biologically active compounds that are being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics. Venomous animals are considered to be specialized predators that have evolved the most sophisticated peptide chemistry and neuropharmacology for their own biological purposes by producing venoms that contain a structural and functional diversity of neurotoxins. These neurotoxins appear to be highly selective ligands for a wide range of ion channels and receptors. Therefore, they represent interesting lead compounds for the development of analgesics, anti-cancer drugs, drugs for neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson' s disease, Alzheimer' s disease, and other therapeutics.This Special Issue of Toxins aims to provide a comprehensive look at toxins and toxin-inspired leads and will focus on the mechanisms of action, structure–function relationships, and evolution of pharmacologically interesting venom components, including the most recent developments related to the emergence of venoms as an underutilized source of highly evolved bioactive peptides with clinical potential.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare: Formation, Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039284108 9783039284115 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-411-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Synthetic and Biosynthetic Approaches to Marine Natural Products

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ISBN: 9783039284665 9783039284672 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-467-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Marine natural products containing a heterocyclic moiety in their structure are present in a wide variety of sponges, corals, algae, and fungi. Many of them show important biological activities such as cytotoxic properties against several cancer cell lines. Their challenging chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have developed various synthetic approaches. This Special Issue presents some examples of new synthetic or biosynthetic methodologies to access this type of marine natural drug.

Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species

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ISBN: 9783039215584 9783039215591 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-559-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool. In 1 year this SI has globally more than 15kdownloads and produced more than 30 citations.

Keywords

Lachancea thermotolerans --- Kluyveromyces thermotolerans --- acidification --- wines --- sequential fermentations --- non-Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Wickerhamomyces anomalus --- Pichia anomala --- enzymes --- glycosidases --- acetate esters --- biocontrol --- mixed starters --- wine --- wine --- Zygosaccharomyces rouxii --- re-fermentation --- spoilage-control --- non-Saccharomyces --- high-ethanol --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- oenological uses --- maloalcoholic fermentation --- stable pigments --- wine safety --- non-Saccharomyces yeast --- Saccharomycodes ludwigii --- S. ludwigii --- spoilage yeasts’ control --- ageing-on-lees --- non-Saccharomyces --- yeast --- sparkling wine --- nitrogen --- aroma --- Candida stellata --- ecology --- taxonomy --- metabolism --- processing foods --- co-fermentation --- non-Saccharomyces --- genome --- aroma compounds --- anthocyanin --- mixed cultures fermentation --- flavor complexity --- Aureobasidium pullulans --- biotechnological applications --- viticulture --- enzymes --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- winemaking --- yeast inoculation --- yeast dominance --- wine quality --- genetic improvement --- antimicrobial peptides --- biocontrol --- Brettanomyces bruxellensis --- Candida intermedia --- wine --- off-flavors --- wine acidity --- volatile acidity --- malolactic bacteria --- Lactobacillus plantarum --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Candida stellate --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Zygotorulaspora florentina --- Pichia kudriavzevii --- Stermerella bacillaris --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- oenological uses --- enzymes --- stable pigments --- pulcherrimin --- n/a --- n/a

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