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Liquid Crystals: From Modified Phases to Applications 2014

ISBN: 9783906980850 9783906980867 Year: Pages: 320
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:24:45
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Liquid crystals can be found in both synthetic and natural materials, which include DNA, cellulose, soaps, and cholesteryl esters. Liquid crystal basic concepts are an inspiration for various branches of physics, chemistry, materials science, mathematics, biology, and engineering. These concepts enable the synthesis and characterization of new materials with low-molecular weight, as well as of polymeric and elastomeric materials. Fundamental theories and models of liquid crystals have gained great importance in many scientific communities. The concepts of orientational order and cooperative molecular behavior have entered the actual basic knowledge of the bio-sciences community, and have contributed to the understanding of muscle function, cell division and membranes, and morphogenesis.Recent trends in liquid crystal research include topics such as polymer-modified anisotropic fluids, dispersions of liquid crystals with various nano-sized particles, topological defects in soft materials, new lyotropic systems, liquid crystal functionality in living systems, and the synthesis of liquid crystal based functional materials (e.g., photonic materials, organic plastic conductors, semiconductors, materials in sensors, materials used in switchable GHz applications, and materials for data storage), along with the study of these materials’ properties and applications.

Advances in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

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ISBN: 9783039282289 9783039282296 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-229-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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With their helical structure, cholesteric liquid crystals figure prominently in liquid crystal science. The selective reflection of light is their flagship property, and they offer a myriad of applications as advanced optical materials with multiscale properties. The cholesteric structure is also a ubiquitous design in the animal and plant kingdoms. This book contains eight contributions on fundamental investigations about defects, textures and structures of cholesteric materials, and experimental studies aimed at applications such as temperature sensors, head-up displays for improving automobile driving safety, or smart windows.

Quantum Probability and Randomness

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977148 9783038977155 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-715-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics—in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.

Keywords

quantum logic --- groups --- partially defined algebras --- quasigroups --- viable cultures --- quantum information theory --- bit commitment --- protocol --- entropy --- entanglement --- orthogonality --- quantum computation --- Gram–Schmidt process --- quantum probability --- potentiality --- complementarity --- uncertainty relations --- Copenhagen interpretation --- indefiniteness --- indeterminism --- causation --- randomness --- quantum information --- quantum dynamics --- entanglement --- algebra --- causality --- geometry --- probability --- quantum information theory --- realism --- reality --- entropy --- correlations --- qubits --- probability representation --- Bayes’ formula --- quantum entanglement --- three-qubit random states --- entanglement classes --- entanglement polytope --- anisotropic invariants --- quantum random number --- vacuum state --- maximization of quantum conditional min-entropy --- quantum logics --- quantum probability --- holistic semantics --- epistemic operations --- Bell inequalities --- algorithmic complexity --- Borel normality --- Bayesian inference --- model selection --- random numbers --- quantum-like models --- operational approach --- information interpretation of quantum theory --- social laser --- social energy --- quantum information field --- social atom --- Bose–Einstein statistics --- bandwagon effect --- social thermodynamics --- resonator of social laser --- master equation for socio-information excitations --- quantum contextuality --- Kochen–Specker sets --- MMP hypergraphs --- Greechie diagrams --- quantum foundations --- probability --- irreducible randomness --- random number generators --- quantum technology --- entanglement --- quantum-like models for social stochasticity --- contextuality

Advancements in Gel Science—A Special Issue in Memory of Toyoichi Tanaka

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ISBN: 9783039213436 9783039213443 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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A gel is a state of matter that consists of a three-dimensional cross-linked polymer network and a large amount of solvent. Because of their structural characteristics, gels play important roles in science and technology. The science of gels has attracted much attention since the discovery of the volume phase transition by Professor Toyoichi Tanala at MIT in 1978. MDPI planned to publish a Special Issue in Gels to celebrate the 40th anniversary of this discovery, which received submissions of 13 original papers and one review from various areas of science. We believe that readers will find this Special Issue informative as to the recent advancements of gel research and the broad background of gel science.

Keywords

gel --- thermoresponsive property --- monomer sequence --- co-crosslinking --- copolymerization --- acrylamide derivative --- swelling --- volume phase transition --- agarose gel --- compression --- solvent transport --- sucrose --- xylitol --- volume phase transition --- effects of electric charge --- swelling of thermosensitive gels --- sol-gel transition --- site-bond correlated-percolation model for polymer gelation --- gelation temperature --- cloud point temperature --- spinodal temperature --- spinodal decomposition --- janus particle --- anisotropic shape --- phase separation --- wetting --- micrometric confinement --- micropipette aspiration --- PVA gel --- gamma ray sterilization --- artificial hydrogel cartilage --- frictional property --- wear --- xerogel --- Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory --- Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis --- temperature --- solids content --- drying --- solvent exchange --- microgel --- electrophoresis --- light scattering --- paint coating --- wrinkle --- swelling --- buckling --- Sephadex® (crosslinked dextran) --- crosslink density (density of crosslinks) --- ice grain --- ice crystallization during rewarming --- glassy water --- X-ray CT --- XRD --- poly(vinyl alcohol) --- chemical gel --- microcrystallite --- hydrogen bond --- swelling behavior --- hysteresis --- hydrogel --- friction --- fatigue --- wear --- fracture --- crack --- adhesion --- delamination --- poly (acryl amide) gel --- time domain reflectometry (TDR) of dielectric spectroscopy --- pulse field gradient spin echo method of nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) --- scaling analysis --- fractal analysis --- heterogeneous gelation dynamics --- moving boundary picture --- phase transition dynamics --- kinetic coefficient --- blood coagulation --- n/a

Computational Methods for Fracture

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ISBN: 9783039216864 9783039216871 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-687-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book offers a collection of 17 scientific papers about the computational modeling of fracture. Some of the manuscripts propose new computational methods and/or how to improve existing cutting edge methods for fracture. These contributions can be classified into two categories: 1. Methods which treat the crack as strong discontinuity such as peridynamics, scaled boundary elements or specific versions of the smoothed finite element methods applied to fracture and 2. Continuous approaches to fracture based on, for instance, phase field models or continuum damage mechanics. On the other hand, the book also offers a wide range of applications where state-of-the-art techniques are employed to solve challenging engineering problems such as fractures in rock, glass, concrete. Also, larger systems such as fracture in subway stations due to fire, arch dams, or concrete decks are studied.

Keywords

plate --- FSDT --- HSDT --- Mindlin --- incompatible approximation --- fracture --- screened-Poisson model --- gradient-enhanced model --- damage-plasticity model --- implicit gradient-enhancement --- rock --- shear failure --- elastoplastic behavior --- extended scaled boundary finite element method (X-SBFEM) --- stress intensity factors --- fracture process zone (FPZ) --- thermomechanical analysis --- moderate fire --- finite element simulations --- metallic glass matrix composite --- finite element analysis --- shear band --- microstructure --- ductility --- peridynamics --- fatigue --- rolling contact --- damage --- rail squats --- cracks --- steel reinforced concrete frame --- reinforced concrete core tube --- progressive collapse analysis --- loss of key components --- self-healing --- damage-healing mechanics --- super healing --- anisotropic --- brittle material --- Brittle Fracture --- cell-based smoothed-finite element method (CS-FEM) --- Phase-field model --- ABAQUS UEL --- the Xulong arch dam --- yielding region --- cracking risk --- overall stability --- dam stress zones --- concrete creep --- prestressing stress --- compressive stress --- FE analysis --- force transfer --- grouting --- fracture network modeling --- numerical simulation --- fluid–structure interaction --- bulk damage --- brittle fracture --- rock fracture --- random fracture --- Mohr-Coulomb --- Discontinuous Galerkin --- EPB shield machine --- conditioned sandy pebble --- particle element model --- parameters calibration --- geometric phase --- photonic orbital angular momentum --- topological insulator --- topological photonic crystal --- fatigue crack growth --- surface crack --- crack shape change --- three-parameter model --- LEFM --- XFEM/GFEM --- SBFEM --- phase field --- n/a

Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215645 9783039215652 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-565-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Building on advances in miniaturization and soft matter, surface tension effects are a major key to the development of soft/fluidic microrobotics. Benefiting from scaling laws, surface tension and capillary effects can enable sensing, actuation, adhesion, confinement, compliance, and other structural and functional properties necessary in micro- and nanosystems. Various applications are under development: microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, soft gripping and manipulation of particles, colloidal and interfacial assemblies, fluidic/droplet mechatronics. The capillary action is ubiquitous in drops, bubbles and menisci, opening a broad spectrum of technological solutions and scientific investigations. Identified grand challenges to the establishment of fluidic microrobotics include mastering the dynamics of capillary effects, controlling the hysteresis arising from wetting and evaporation, improving the dispensing and handling of tiny droplets, and developing a mechatronic approach for the control and programming of surface tension effects. In this Special Issue of Micromachines, we invite contributions covering all aspects of microscale engineering relying on surface tension. Particularly, we welcome contributions on fundamentals or applications related to:Drop-botics: fluidic or surface tension-based micro/nanorobotics: capillary manipulation, gripping, and actuation, sensing, folding, propulsion and bio-inspired solutions; Control of surface tension effects: surface tension gradients, active surfactants, thermocapillarity, electrowetting, elastocapillarity; Handling of droplets, bubbles and liquid bridges: dispensing, confinement, displacement, stretching, rupture, evaporation; Capillary forces: modelling, measurement, simulation; Interfacial engineering: smart liquids, surface treatments; Interfacial fluidic and capillary assembly of colloids and devices; Biological applications of surface tension, including lab-on-chip and organ-on-chip systems. We expect novel as well as review contributions on all aspects of surface tension-based micro/nanoengineering. In line with Micromachines' policy, we also invite research proposals that introduce ideas for new applications, devices, or technologies.

Keywords

mist capillary self-alignment --- laser die transfer --- hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces --- microasssembly --- droplet transport --- microfluidics --- vibrations --- contact line oscillation --- asymmetric surfaces --- anisotropic ratchet conveyor --- surface tension --- capillary --- bearing --- wetting --- computational fluid dynamics --- droplet manipulation --- lab-on-a-chip --- microfluidics --- non-invasive control --- photochemical reaction --- photoresponsible surfactant --- surface tension --- two-phase flow --- wettability --- electrowetting --- actuation --- capillary pressure --- lab-on-a-chip --- Nasturtium leaf --- smart superhydrophobic surface --- hot drop --- condensation --- microtexture melting --- self-lubricating slippery surface --- wettability gradient --- electrosurgical scalpels --- anti-sticking --- soft tissue --- continuous-flow reactor --- mixing --- solutal Marangoni effect --- relaxation oscillations --- super-hydrophobic --- durable --- adhesion --- corrosive resistance --- droplet --- vibrations --- transport --- microfluidics --- self-cleaning surface --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- superomniphobic --- microfluidics --- electrodynamic screen --- gecko setae --- micropipette-technique --- air-water surface --- oil-water interface --- soluble surfactant --- insoluble lipids --- “black lipid films” --- “droplet-interface-bilayers” --- equilibrium --- dynamic --- adsorption --- gas-microbubbles --- oil-microdroplets --- lung-surfactants --- nanoprecipitation --- microfluidics --- capillary gripper --- pick and place --- micromanufacturing --- two-photon polymerization --- stereolithography --- polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication --- rigid gas permeable contact lenses --- wettability --- hydrophilic --- hydrophobic --- 355 nm UV laser --- surface treatment --- microstructure --- contact angle --- droplets --- liquid bridge --- microfabrication --- micromanipulation --- pick-and-place --- soft robotics --- surface tension --- wetting

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972761 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-277-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

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