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Polymer Micelles

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ISBN: 9783038428077 9783038428084 Year: Pages: VIII, 220 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 15:30:28
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Classically, polymer micelles have been defined as aggregates formed by the self-association of amphiphilic polymers due to the hydrophobic interactions between polymer molecules in water. Practical applications of polymer micelles include as carriers in drug delivery systems, as solubilizers, and as associative thickeners. Polymer micelles that do not fall within the classical definition have recently been reported and reflect important developments in synthesis and analysis. For example, hydrophobic interactions are the classic force driving polymer association, whereas recently, micelles have been formed through interactions such as electrostatics, hydrogen bonds, and coordination bonds. Intermolecular association results in the formation of polymer micelles that are similar to micelles formed from low molecular weight surfactants, whereas unimolecular micelles formed by intramolecular association within a single polymer chain have also been reported, as have stimuli-responsive polymer micelles. It is therefore important to constantly update the information available and our knowledge of polymer micelles. This special issue covers synthesis, characterization, solution properties, association behavior, simulation, and the application of polymer micelles and polymer aggregates. The aim of this issue is to expand our knowledge of polymer micelles by gathering together the latest basic and applied information regarding these supramolecular structures.

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

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ISBN: 9783039211326 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

Self-Organizing Nanovectors for Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783039284283 / 9783039284290 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-429-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Nanomedicine represents one of the most investigated areas in the last two decades in the field of pharmaceutics. Several nanovectors have been developed and a growing number of products have been approved. It is well known that many biomaterials are able to self-organize under controlled conditions giving rise nanostructures. Polymers, lipids, inorganic materials, peptides and proteins, and surfactants are examples of such biomaterials and the self-assembling property can be exploited to design nanovectors that are useful for drug delivery. The self-organization of nanostructures is an attractive approach to preparing nanovectors, avoiding complex and high-energy-consuming preparation methods, and, in some cases, facilitating drug loading procedures. Moreover, preparations based on these biocompatible and pharmaceutical grade biomaterials allow an easy transfer from the lab to the industrial scale. This book reports ten different works, and a review, aiming to cover multiple strategies and pharmaceutical applications in the field of self-organizing nanovectors for drug delivery.

Self-Assembled Bio-Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039285365 9783039285372 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-537-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biomolecular self-assembly provides a green, facile, and highly effective method to synthesize various functional nanomaterials that have exhibited considerable potential in the fields of nanotechnology, materials science, biomedicine, tissue engineering, food science, energy storage, and environmental science. In this collection of articles, we presented recent advance in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of self-assembled bio-nanomaterials. In a comprehensive review article, the controlled self-assembly of biomolecules including DNA, protein, peptide, enzymes, virus, and biopolymers via internal interactions and external simulations is introduced and discussed in detail. In other research articles, the self-assembly of DNA, protein, peptide, bio-drugs, liquid crystal polycarbonates, and diblock copolymers to various biomimetic/bioinspired nanomaterials and their potential applications in nanopatterning, sensors/biosensors, drug delivery, anti-parasite, and water purification are demonstrated.

Functional Polymers for Controlled Drug Release

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ISBN: 9783039284900 9783039284917 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-491-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This Special Issue focuses on the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels specifically used as carriers of biological molecules for pharmaceutical and biomedical employments. Pharmaceutical applications of hydrophilic materials has emerged as one of the most significant trends in the area of nanotechnology. To propose some of the latest findings in this field, each contribution involves an in-depth analysis including different starting materials and their physico-chemical and biological properties with the aim of synthetizing high-performing devices for specific use. In this context, intelligent polymeric devices able to be morphologically modified in response to an internal or external stimulus, such as pH or temperature, have been actively pursued. In general, hydrophilic polymeric materials lead to high in vitro and/or in vivo therapeutic efficacy, with programmed site-specific feature showing remarkable potential for targeted therapy. This Special Issue serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress in this field. Relevant resources and people to approach - American Association Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS): web: www.aaps.org; email: (marketing division): Marketing@aaps.org; (mmeting division): Meetings@aaps.org - International Association for Pharmaceutical Technology (APV): web: apv-mainz.de; email (managing director):

Siloxane-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038971252 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

Recent Development of Electrospinning for Drug Delivery

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281404 9783039281411 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-141-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Several promising techniques have been developed to overcome the poor solubility and/or membrane permeability properties of new drug candidates, including different fiber formation methods. Electrospinning is one of the most commonly used spinning techniques for fiber formation, induced by the high voltage applied to the drug-loaded solution. With modifying the characteristics of the solution and the spinning parameters, the functionality-related properties of the formulated fibers can be finely tuned. The fiber properties (i.e., high specific surface area, porosity, and the possibility of controlling the crystalline–amorphous phase transitions of the loaded drugs) enable the improved rate and extent of solubility, causing a rapid onset of absorption. However, the enhanced molecular mobility of the amorphous drugs embedded into the fibers is also responsible for their physical–chemical instability. This Special Issue will address new developments in the area of electrospun nanofibers for drug delivery and wound healing applications, covering recent advantages and future directions in electrospun fiber formulations and scalability. Moreover, it serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress in electrospinning techniques, with particular attention to the industrial feasibility of developing pharmaceutical dosage forms. All aspects of small molecule or biologics-loaded fibrous dosage forms, focusing on the processability, structures and functions, and stability issues, are included.

Keywords

electrospinning --- gentamicin sulfate --- polylactide-co-polycaprolactone --- drug release kinetics --- tissue engineering --- growth factor --- diabetic --- wound healing --- nanocomposite --- electrospinning --- coaxial spinning --- core-sheath nanofibers --- biomedical --- drug delivery --- electrospinning --- scale-up --- processability --- biopharmaceuticals --- oral dosage form --- grinding --- aceclofenac --- nanofiber --- electrospinning --- scanning electron microscopy --- fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- differential scanning calorimetry --- nanotechnology --- biotechnology --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus --- Lactococcus --- electrospinning --- nanofibers --- drying --- local delivery --- viability --- antibacterial activity --- bacterial bioreporters --- drug release --- electrospinning --- microfibers --- nanofibers --- UV imaging --- wetting --- in situ drug release --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- poorly water-soluble drug --- piroxicam --- hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose --- polydextrose --- scanning white light interferometry --- nanotechnology --- nanofibers --- traditional electrospinning --- ultrasound-enhanced electrospinning --- drug delivery system --- haemanthamine --- plant-origin alkaloid --- electrospinning --- amphiphilic nanofibers --- self-assembled liposomes --- physical solid-state properties --- drug release --- electrospinning --- PCL --- gelatin --- clove essential oil --- antibacterial --- biocompatibility --- artificial red blood cells --- electrospinning and electrospray --- pectin --- oligochitosan --- hydrogel --- microcapsules --- electrospinning --- wound dressings --- solvent casting --- 3D printing --- polymeric carrier --- n/a

Smart and Functional Polymers

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039215904 9783039215911 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-591-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book is based on the Special Issue of the journal Molecules on “Smart and Functional Polymers”. The collected research and review articles focus on the synthesis and characterization of advanced functional polymers, polymers with specific structures and performances, current improvements in advanced polymer-based materials for various applications, and the opportunities and challenges in the future. The topics cover the emerging synthesis and characterization technology of smart polymers, core?shell structure polymers, stimuli-responsive polymers, anhydrous electrorheological materials fabricated from conducting polymers, reversible polymerization systems, and biomedical polymers for drug delivery and disease theranostics. In summary, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest synthesis approaches, representative structures and performances, and various applications of smart and functional polymers. It will serve as a useful reference for all researchers and readers interested in polymer sciences and technologies.

Keywords

amphiphilicity --- phase change --- polyamino acids --- degradability --- fine-tuning --- pH responsive --- poly(methacrylamide)s --- phase transition --- catalyst --- CO2 --- heterogeneous catalysis --- molecular sieve --- polyether imidazole ionic liquid --- Vitamin E --- albumin --- core-shell nanoparticles --- paclitaxel --- multi-drug resistance --- breast cancer --- conducting polymer --- composite --- electrorheological --- smart fluid --- viscoelastic --- controlled polymerization --- reversible polymerization --- sustainable polymers --- pH responsive polymers --- nanomedicine --- tumor imaging --- drug delivery --- polymerization dispersion method --- polyaniline --- polyvinyl alcohol --- glutaraldehyde --- chemical activation --- Glycopolymer --- post-polymerization functionalization --- perfluoroaryl azides --- Staudinger reaction --- castor oil --- biomedical devices --- polyurethanes --- polycaprolactone-diol --- chitosan --- fluoropolymers --- melt-shear organization --- chemical resistance --- solvent responsiveness --- hydrophobicity --- core/shell particles --- emulsion polymerization --- particle processing --- ?-NaYF4 --- rare earth upconversion nanoparticles --- core–shell structure --- hydrogels --- applications --- targeted drug delivery --- drug release --- hydrophobic drug delivery --- clinical translation --- versatile platform --- administration routes --- diverse therapeutic areas --- hearing loss --- saffron --- endophytic exopolysaccharide --- gentamicin --- cochlear hair cell --- polymeric nanoparticles --- stimuli-sensitive polymers --- co-delivery systems --- synergistic effect --- nucleic acid delivery --- chemotherapy --- phenylboronic acid --- gel --- glucose sensitivity --- drug delivery --- diabetes therapy --- amphiphilic copolymer --- hydrolyzable polyurea --- micelle --- controlled drug delivery --- cancer chemotherapy --- polymerization or post-polymerization modification methods --- polymer-based supramolecular chemistry --- stimuli-responsive polymers --- shape memory polymers --- self-healing polymers --- polymers for industrial catalysis --- polymers for water or effluent treatment --- polymers for sensing, separation, and purification --- polymers for fabrication --- renewable polymer materials used for agriculture --- functional polymers used in food science --- polymers for information storage, electronics, and energy conversion --- functional polymers for diagnosis, imaging, drug delivery, and tissue engineering --- polymers with biological activity (e.g., antitumor, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial activity) --- polymer-based medical devices

Advances in Peptide and Peptidomimetic Design Inspiring Basic Science and Drug Discovery: A Themed Issue Honoring Professor Victor J. Hruby on the Occasion of His 80th Birthday

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039282883 9783039282890 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-289-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Advances in Peptide and Peptidomimetic Design Inspiring Basic Science and Drug Discovery is a book dedicated to Prof. Victor J. Hruby on the occasion of his 80th birthday. This book includes twenty contributions from authors representing diverse multidisciplinary fields of scientific expertise, and is focused on the extraordinary potential of peptides and peptidomimetics as a surging therapeutic modality and as tools for basic research and technology development.

Keywords

MC3R --- MC4R --- mixed pharmacology --- tetrapeptides --- melanocortins --- Plk1 --- selectivity --- polo-box domain --- peptide --- triazole --- PKA --- stapled peptide --- PKI --- pseudosubstrate --- kinase inhibitor --- IP20 --- polycationic -amino acids --- small antimicrobial peptides --- sepsis --- peptidomimetics --- VEGF165 --- neuropilin-1 --- molecular dynamics --- structure–activity relationship --- OBOC --- combinatorial chemistry --- opioid --- drug screen --- molecular rotor dye --- high throughput screening --- sensor chip --- peptide --- peptide-drug conjugate --- mixed-mode pharmacology --- GLP-1 --- GnRH --- LHRH --- chemical linker --- cancer --- diabetes --- obesity --- drug discovery --- melanocortin-4 receptor --- obesity --- peptide agonist --- cardiovascular profile --- G?S signaling --- receptor desensitization --- receptor internalization --- peptidomimetics --- azapeptides --- aza-amino acids --- ?-hairpin --- ?-sheet --- programmed cell death ligand protein 1 --- pharmacophore --- peptide --- small molecule --- anticancer peptide --- therapeutic peptides --- support vector machine --- random forest --- machine learning --- classification --- peptides --- endosomolytic --- amphiphilic --- fusogenic --- influenza hemagglutinin --- RBC lysis --- peptide permeability --- stapled peptide --- macrocyclic peptide --- D-amino acid --- helix-breaker --- adaptogenic --- autophagy --- ?-ginkgotide --- cytoprotective --- cysteine-rich peptides --- disulfide-rich scaffold --- hyperdisulfide --- hypoxia --- LIR motif --- ginkgo nuts --- ?-helix mimetics --- bis-benzamide scaffold --- protein–protein interaction --- prostate cancer --- androgen receptor --- coactivator PELP1 --- Ranalexin --- peptide therapeutics --- antibiotics --- configuration --- antimicrobial activity --- cancer vaccine --- synthetic vaccine --- adjuvant --- Toll-like receptor --- Pam2Cys --- N-acetylated Pam2Cys --- bioconjugation --- lipidation --- prostaglandin F2? --- preterm labor --- myometrium contractions --- peptidomimetic --- structure-activity --- opioids --- multifunctional ligands --- peptide design --- free energy calculation --- d-amino acid scan --- alanine scan

Marine Chitin 2019

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039360727 / 9783039360734 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-073-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In 2019, we sent out a call for submissions to a Special Issue of Marine Drugs entitled “Marine Chitin 2019”, and we are pleased that this issue has now been published. Over 16 high-impact papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition, we now seek to publish a further Special Issue of Marine Drugs, “Marine Chitin 2020–2021”. As before, we plan to produce an authoritative and exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Significant advances in chitin and chitosan research have been made since the 1970s, and current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances are in need of an update.

Keywords

chitosan --- cytotoxicity --- polymer film --- sodium carbonate --- soluble chitosan complex --- chitin --- chitosan --- protease --- chitinase --- chitosan oligomers --- chitooligosaccharides --- anti-inflammatory action --- RAW264.7 macrophage --- chitosan oleate salt --- amphiphilic polymer --- PLGA --- nanoparticles --- mucoadhesion --- Caco-2 cell culture --- nile red --- curcumin --- chitooligosaccharide --- immunostimulatory activity --- RAW 264.7 cells --- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) --- phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt --- chitosan oligosaccharides --- streptomycin --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- biofilms --- conjugation --- chitin --- marine sponges --- scaffolds --- Aplysina archeri --- express method --- bromotyrosines --- crude oil --- blood --- methylene blue --- chitin --- chitosan --- Paenibacillus --- chitosanase --- chitosan oligomers --- ?-glucosidase inhibitor --- antioxidant --- Polybius henslowii --- marine resources --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- antifungal activity --- antioxidant activity --- chitin --- collagen --- electrospinning --- mechanical property --- 2D correlation spectroscopy --- polymorph --- chitosan lactate --- chitosan tartrate --- chitosan citrate --- Eudragit® S100 --- layer-by-layer film --- mucoadhesive film --- Tenofovir controlled release --- pH responsive release --- vaginal preexposure prophylaxis --- HIV sexual transmission --- chitin --- chitosan --- wound treatment --- derivatization --- nanocomposites --- chitosan --- antibacterial activity --- Clostridium perfringens --- pork sausage --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- enzymatic modification --- biotechnology --- chitinase --- chitosanase --- lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase --- chitin deacetylase --- chitosan-coated liposomes --- chitosan hydrogel --- mucoadhesion --- vaginal infections --- antibacterial activity --- Staphylococcus epidermidis --- Staphylococcus aureus --- chitin --- roller compaction --- ball milling --- direct compression --- compression work --- crushing strength --- Hausner ratio --- Kawakita analysis --- bulk density --- dissolution

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