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Das Instrument der Direktzahlungen in der Agrarpolitik der USA und der EU - Eine Konvergenzanalyse

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ISBN: 9783863953911 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2018-1117 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:02
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Lange Zeit stellten die entkoppelten Direktzahlungen ein wichtiges Instrument zur Förderung der Landwirtschaft sowohl in den USA als auch in der EU dar. Ihre Abschaffung in den USA durch die Agrarreform von 2014 markierte den Bruch des bisherigen Trends zur Angleichung der Agrarpolitiken beider Akteure. Die vorliegende Arbeit erklärt mithilfe der Konvergenztheorie die Ursachen für die neu auftretenden Divergenzen. Es werden die Gründe für den Reformdruck in Bezug auf die Direktzahlungen identifiziert sowie die Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede zwischen den USA und der EU herausgearbeitet und bewertet. Schließlich werden die Konvergenzmuster untersucht und der Konvergenzprozess erklärt. Der Analyse liegt ein umfassender Vergleich der jeweiligen Entwicklung der Direktzahlungen zugrunde, einschließlich ihrer Behandlung in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks.

Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780199683529 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:22
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Agricultural input subsidies were a major feature of development policies in rural economies until the 1980s. Continuing rural poverty with low productivity and fertilizer use in smallholder staple crops has led to their resurgence in Africa. These subsidies are, however, controversial with claims of both large food security benefits and unsustainable, inefficient resource use. This book reviews current theory and evidence on the strengths and weaknesses of these programmes and the effects of programme context, design, and implementation. Theoretical arguments for agricultural subsidies are based on input promotion where farmers’ private costs (benefits) are higher (lower) than wider economic costs (benefits). These arguments, and concerns about inefficiency and diversion, are reviewed and extended to consider input affordability constraints and ‘smart’ rationing and targeting. Recent programmes in Africa have a variety of generally producer-focused objectives, with varied implementation and programme outcomes. Most pay little attention to consumer interests and potential contributions to wider growth. A detailed examination of Malawi’s controversial agricultural input subsidy programme follows. Drawing on a wide range of information sources, the political and agro-economic contexts of the programme are examined, with evidence on its implementation and impacts from 2005 to 2011. Positive impacts are recorded on beneficiaries’ production, incomes, food consumption, school enrolment, child health, and reduced need for earnings from undertaking casual labour for others. There is evidence of indirect economy-wide impacts, but this is not as strong as might be expected. Targeting and graduation are identified as critically important issues requiring continuing attention.

The Development of the Agricultural Sector of Colombia into the 1960s

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ISBN: 9789587387414 9789587387421 Year: DOI: 10.12804/te9789587387421 Language: English
Publisher: Editorial Universidad del Rosario Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 104852
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-26 11:22:12
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For various reasons it was not revised and edited for publication at that time. In view of the important events currently transpiring in and around the agricultural sector of Colombia and the possible usefulness of additional historical material, it is now being published essentially as it was left in the late 1960s. I have not reviewed the available material in detail recently, so their may be errors of fact that I am not aware of, either in the numbers presented or of other sorts. Many useful studies of Colombian agriculture have been undertaken in the interim, though they may not have covered the same material as included here. Because of the unrevised nature of the material the mode of presentation varies from chapter to chapter. Table numbers are not continuous (i.e. there may be no Table 5 in a given chapter) but their order has been maintained, sometimes through the use of decimals (e.g. Table 10.1).

Weltagrarbericht: Synthesebericht

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783937816685 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.94 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:23

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The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development[IAASTD] adopted in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2008, is the result of a unique cooperative effort by UN and other international organizations, 60 governments and more than 400 scientists from all over the world.A Global Report and five Regional Reports describe the main problems facing agriculture, food, the environment and human health today and show how the urgent need for a turnaround towards sustainable, environmentally and socially equitable development and food security for a growing world population can be achieved in practice. The synthesis report now published in German summarizes the central analyses and options.

Assessment and Governance of Sustainable Soil Management

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039214792 9783039214808 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-480-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The role of soils for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals is multifarious. Soils are the essential basis for food and biomass provision in support of food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7). Soil carbon sequestration is paramount for climate action (SDG 13). Soil-mediated water purification and retention, nutrient and matter cycling, and soils habitat functions are essential for maintaining ecosystem services and biodiversity (SDG 15). Healthy soils perform well in all these functions simultaneously. However, the globally increasing demand for food, fiber, and bio-based products poses massive challenges to soil health. Minimizing trade-offs between biomass production and soil health requires systemic approaches to assessment and governance of sustainable soil management in agriculture and food systems. It provides interdisciplinary insights into key questions: What are the impacts of agricultural management practices on sustainability targets in specific geophysical and socio-economic contexts? What are the opportunities and risks of future trends such as climate change, digitalization, and emerging technologies for soil management and soil health? How can institutions and governance instruments be improved to enable decision makers to take action on sustainable soil management? The book was initiated in the frame of the National German research program ‘BonaRes—Soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy’, and it is meant to trigger interdisciplinary thinking.

Keywords

conservation agriculture --- crop–livestock interactions --- Syria --- soil health --- agricultural innovation --- arid oasis --- combination of modern and indigenous knowledge --- Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response sustainability framework --- bayesian network --- soil functions --- conservation agriculture --- conventional farming --- zero tillage --- environmental zones --- phosphorus --- legal comparison --- governance --- sustainable agriculture --- fertilization --- soil protection --- Germany --- Costa Rica --- Nicaragua --- crop rotation modelling --- spatially explicit --- dynamic programming --- gross income --- carob --- yield --- soils --- desertification --- coffee by-products --- nutrient composition --- N leaching --- production --- so-called organic fertilizer --- ecosystem services --- governance --- institutions --- land --- property rights --- soils --- sustainability --- landowner --- tenant --- rent price --- rent proportion --- yield potential --- sustainable soil management --- soil degradation --- soil functions --- soil framework directive --- soil policy --- soil threats --- contamination --- sealing --- soil compaction --- risk assessment --- soil functions --- soil management --- subsoil --- compaction --- agricultural yields --- soil functions --- societal acceptance --- farmer motivations --- subsoil loosening --- alfalfa --- sustainable soil management --- resource scarcity --- Germany --- ecosystem services --- soil food web --- earthworms --- monitoring --- water infiltration --- agricultural policy --- behavioural studies --- literature review --- soil functions --- soil pressures --- justifying soil protection --- sustainable soil management --- creation ethics --- Laudato si’ --- property rights --- German Constitutional Law --- soil --- ecosystem services --- land management --- soil remediation --- Europe --- soil functions --- agricultural practices --- sustainability assessment --- ecosystem services --- resource use efficiency --- soil policy --- soil governance

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