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Enzyme reaction engineering for the conversion of emulsified di-rhamnolipid by free and immobilized Naringinase

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ISBN: 9783866443297 Year: Pages: 131 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000010067 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Process optimization was conducted for the conversion of the aggragate-building substrate di-rhamnolipid to mono-rhamnolipid by Alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Penicillium decumbens and resulting in: (I) selection of optimal reaction conditions for enzyme activity and stability, (II) modeling of the reaction time course assuming mixed aggregates as a second phase, and (III) high mass diffusion resistances were completely overcome by the use of non-porous magnetic enzyme micro-carriers.

Recent Advances in Smart Materials for the Built Environment

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038973522 9783038973539 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-353-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-10 10:27:42
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[The book deals with novel investigations concerning new materials and their applications in the built environment. The built environment of the future will implement innovative solutions for energy efficiency, self-monitoring infrastructures, and self-healing strategies, just to mention the most promising smart material technologies that will most likely assume a pivotal importance in the future. This book is a result of a very multidisciplinary effort aimed at driving the scientific progress of the constructions of the future. The works included in this book concern new materials and coatings for cultural heritage preservation, environmentally sustainable concretes and paving material components, self-healing, and durability strategies.]

New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211401 / 9783039211418 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-141-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book is the result of a Special Issue published in Applied Sciences, entitled “New Trends in Recycled Aggregate Concrete"". It identifies emerging research areas within the field of recycled aggregate concrete and contributes to the increased use of this eco-efficient material.Its contents are organised in the following sections: Upscaling the use of recycled aggregate concrete in structural design; Large scale applications of recycled aggregate concrete; Long-term behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete; Performance of recycled aggregate concrete in very aggressive environments; Reliability of recycled aggregate concrete structures; Life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete; New applications of recycled aggregate concrete.

Keywords

reactive power concrete --- shrinkage --- creep --- steel fibre --- model --- compressive strength --- models --- geological nature of aggregates --- quality of aggregates --- concrete --- recycled aggregates --- seismic load --- strain rate --- fiber-reinforced concrete --- dynamic mechanical property --- recycled aggregate quality --- bond strength --- shear behavior --- aggregate interlock mechanism --- size effect --- ready-mixed concrete --- recycled concrete aggregates --- returned concrete --- concrete sludge fines --- soil stabilization --- recycled aggregate --- recycled aggregate concrete --- artificial neural networks --- aggregate characteristic --- input variable --- recycled concrete --- aggregate --- mixture proportioning --- flexural behavior --- recycling --- heavyweight waste glass --- cyclic load --- reinforced concrete member --- recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) --- steel reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (SRRAC) --- elevated temperature --- residual properties --- recycled coarse aggregate concrete --- nylon fiber --- mechanical properties --- permeability --- microstructure --- foam concrete --- cellular concrete --- ceramic foam --- modulus --- crushing --- energy absorbing --- CT --- foam structure --- foam stability --- recycled aggregate --- concrete --- life cycle assessment --- environmental impact --- recycled concrete aggregate --- crumb rubber --- crushed glass --- compressive strength --- tensile splitting strength --- water absorption --- concrete --- aggregates --- fly-ash --- silica fume --- blast-furnace slag --- mechanical properties --- water absorption --- reinforced concrete --- recycled aggregate concrete --- columns --- seismic performance --- numerical analysis --- variable sensitivity --- recycled aggregate --- concrete --- construction waste --- mechanical characteristics --- durable characteristics --- n/a

Mineral Fibres

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211449 / 9783039211456 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-145-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) and asbestos containing materials (ACMs) as a source of possible environmental risk. A crucial theme of interest related to environmental pollution is the enhanced mobilization of asbestos minerals affecting soils and rocks due to human activities (e.g., road construction, mining activity) in comparison with natural weathering processes. The volume has aimed to gather contributions and to compare results derived from various experiences of research groups regarding NOA minerals as a source of possible environmental risks for population. Case studies from various geological contexts are presented. Moreover, contributions presenting novel and classical approaches for ACM inertization and recycling, together with possible solutions for reducing asbestos exposure, has been also presented.

Energy and Seismic Renovation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

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ISBN: 9783038979449 / 9783038979456 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-945-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 09:16:44
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The principle of sustainability should be strictly connected with safety, since both aim to conserve resources: in the case of sustainability, the resources are typically thought of as environmental, while in the case of safety, the resources are basically human. In spite of this common ground, discussions on sustainability usually give insufficient attention to safety. In the last years the EU has made large investments to increase the energy efficiency of the existing building stock, paving the way for a low-carbon future; however, less effort has been made to enhance its seismic resilience. Therefore, the safety and, consequently, the sustainability of towns situated in earthquake-prone countries remain inadequate. In such countries, energy renovation actions should be combined with seismic retrofitting. However, a number of barriers considerably limit the real possibility of extensively undertaking combined retrofit actions, especially for multi-owner housing and high-rise buildings. These barriers are of different kinds: technical (e.g., unfeasibility and/or ineffectiveness of conventional retrofit solutions), financial (e.g., high renovation costs, insufficient incentives/subsidies), organizational (e.g., occupants’ disruption and relocation, renovation consensus by condominium ownerships), and cultural/social (insufficient information and skills, lack of adequate policy measures for promoting renovation actions). This book aims to overcome these barriers and to bridge the gap between sustainability and safety, so to conserve both human and environmental resources.

Recent Trends in Phosphate Mining and Beneficiation and Related Waste Management

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281725 / 9783039281732 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-173-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The extraction of apatite minerals is becoming more and more crucial with the depletion of high-grade ores. At the same time, many streams of waste are continuously being produced by the phosphate industry, including calcareous and siliceous waste rocks, clayey sludge and phosphogypsum. These waste products are produced in huge volumes reaching a ratio of between 5 to 10 tons of waste per each ton of concentrated phosphate. The management of these waste products is becoming a real issue in terms of growing public awareness and environmental and financial aspects. In addition, phosphate ores are known to contain other critical raw materials (CRM) such as rare earth elements and uranium. The recovery of these vital elements from phosphate waste may help to develop the needs of the green energy of the future and contribute to the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In this Special Issue, insights related to the following aspects were studied: phosphate extraction and beneficiation, novel phosphate ores, the fine characterization of phosphate ores and waste, phosphoric acid production, critical raw material (CRM) recovery from phosphate ores and waste, reprocessing of phosphate wastes and finally the valorization and reuse of phosphate waste and phosphogypsum.

Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

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ISBN: 9783038978442 9783038978459 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-845-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment transport processes, monitoring the evolution of sedimentary stocks and anticipating changes in littoral and coastal zones is essential for this purpose. The special issue of Water on &ldquo;Sediment transport in coastal waters&rdquo; gathers thirteen papers which introduce the current revolution in the scientific research related to coastal and littoral hydrosedimentary dynamics, and reflect the diversity of concerns on which research in coastal sediment transport is based, and current trends &mdash; topics and preferred methods &mdash; to address them.

Keywords

suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- coastal hydraulics --- Mekong --- river plume --- monsoon --- mathematical model --- geochemical map --- particle transfer process --- tidal current --- analysis of variance (ANOVA) --- Cluster analysis --- Mahalanobis’ generalized distances --- Seto Inland Sea --- East Coast Low --- nearshore processes --- coastal erosion --- coastal management --- climate change --- numerical modelling --- Southeast Australia --- soil erosion --- SWAT --- water scarcity --- sediment transport modelling --- Tafna catchment --- North Africa --- suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- lagoon --- geochemistry --- Ni mining --- sediment trap --- hydrodynamics --- New Caledonia --- dry season --- Senegal River delta --- Langue de Barbarie spit --- delta vulnerability --- river-mouth migration --- spit breaching --- ERA hindcast waves --- longshore sediment transport --- Vietnam --- South China Sea --- erosion --- recovery --- storminess --- winter monsoon --- typhoons --- shoreline --- waves forcing --- storms --- resilience --- post-storm recovery --- Bight of Benin --- seasonal cycle --- trend --- sand-mud mixture erosion --- numerical modelling --- non-cohesive to cohesive transition --- remote sensing reflectance --- turbidity --- seagrass beds --- bed shear stress --- fresh water runoff --- oceanic water intrusion --- suspended particulate matter --- aggregates --- flocculation --- biomass --- sediment --- turbidity --- remote-sensing --- MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) --- Support Vector Regression (SVR) --- oligotrophic lagoon --- bathymetry --- reflectance --- seabed colour --- coral reef --- New Caledonia --- sediment transport --- cohesive sediments --- non cohesive sediments --- sand --- mud --- coastal erosion --- sedimentation --- morphodynamics --- suspended particulate matter --- bedload

Possible Scenarios for Homochirality on Earth

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ISBN: 9783039217229 / 9783039217236 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-723-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In 1978, Fred Hoyle proposed that interstellar comets carrying several viruses landed on Earth as part of the panspermia hypotheses. With respect to life, the origin of homochirality on Earth has been the greatest mystery because life cannot exist without molecular asymmetry. Many scientists have proposed several possible hypotheses to answer this long-standing L-D question. Previously, Martin Gardner raised the question about mirror symmetry and broken mirror symmetry in terms of the homochirality question in his monographs (1964 and 1990). Possible scenarios for the L-D issue can be categorized into (i) Earth and exoterrestrial origins, (ii) by-chance and necessity mechanisms, and (iii) mirror-symmetrical and non-mirror-symmetrical forces as physical and chemical origins. These scenarios should involve further great amplification mechanisms, enabling a pure L- or D-world.

Keywords

chirogenesis --- enantiomorphism --- nepheline --- magmatic flow --- etch figures --- origin of life --- biological homochirality --- deracemization --- super-high-velocity impact --- plasma reactor --- absolute asymmetric synthesis --- amino acids --- origin of life --- amino acid handedness --- nucleus–molecular coupling --- chirality --- circularly polarized luminescence --- circular dichroism --- symmetry breaking --- parity violation --- weak neutral current --- tunneling --- Z0 boson --- homochirality --- precision measurement --- homochirality --- circularly polarized light --- asymmetric reaction --- polymer --- ?-strand --- hidden chirality --- two-fold helix --- multi-point approximation --- tilt-chirality --- high dimensional chirality --- spin polarized electrons --- homochirality --- magnetism --- prebiotic --- environmental chirality --- C1- and C2-symmetric catalysts --- chiral field (memory) --- racemic field --- Viedma ripening effect --- Wallach’s rule --- heat capacity --- metal-organic framework --- triethylenediamine (DABCO) molecules --- racemate --- Salam hypothesis --- homochirality --- parity violation --- neutrinos --- gravitation --- enantiomer self-disproportionation --- SDE --- achiral stationary phase --- homochiral and heterochiral aggregates --- chiral separation --- chirality --- genesis of life chirality --- asymmetric autocatalysis --- homochirality --- chirality --- asymmetric synthesis --- Soai reaction --- biological homochirality --- enantioselective reaction --- autocatalysis --- origin of life --- replicators --- bioorganic homochirality --- circularly polarized photon --- spin-polarized lepton --- parity violation in the weak interaction --- symmetry breaking --- assemblies --- supramolecular chirality --- homochirality --- self-assembly --- vortex --- lipid --- supramolecular assembly --- symmetry breaking --- homochirality

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

Author:
ISBN: 9783039282562 / 9783039282579 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-257-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The cytoplasm of Gram-negative bacteria is bound by three layers: an inner membrane, a layer of peptidoglycan, and an outer membrane. The outer membrane is an asymmetric lipidic bilayer, with phospholipids on its inner surface and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on the outside, with the latter being the major component of the outer leaflet and covering nearly three-quarters of the total outer cell surface. All LPSs possess the same general chemical architecture independently of bacterial activity (pathogenic, symbiotic, commensal), ecological niche (human, animal, soil, plant, water), or growth conditions. Endotoxins are large amphiphilic molecules consisting of a hydrophilic polysaccharide component and a covalently bound hydrophobic and highly conserved lipid component, termed lipid A (the endotoxin subunit). The polysaccharide component can be divided into two subdomains: the internal and conserved core region as well as the more external and highly variable O-specific chain, also referred to as the O-antigen due to its immunogenic properties. LPSs are endotoxins, one of the most potent class of activators of the mammalian immune system; they can be released from cell surfaces of bacteria during multiplication, lysis, and death. LPS can act through its biological center (lipid A component) on various cell types, of which macrophages and monocytes are the most important.

Keywords

aspirin --- hepcidin --- P65 (nuclear factor-?B) --- IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- nitric oxide (NO) --- iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) --- Megalobrama amblycephala --- lipopolysaccharide induced TNF? factor --- lipopolysaccharide stimulation --- innate immune --- Aeromonas --- genomics --- inner core oligosaccharide --- outer core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- Erwinia amylovora --- NMR --- ESI FT-ICR --- structural determination --- Bordetellae --- Bordetella holmesii --- endotoxin --- lipid A --- structure --- mass spectrometry --- genomic --- Edwardsiella tarda --- core oligosaccharide --- MALDI-TOF MS --- ESI MSn --- NMR --- genomic --- LPS tolerance --- hypothalamic inflammation --- insulin resistance --- pJNK --- fibroblast --- keratocyte --- cornea --- lipopolysaccharide --- bacteria --- chemokine --- adhesion molecule --- collagen --- tear fluid --- serum resistance --- complement --- Salmonella --- lipopolysaccharide --- sialic acid --- reptile-associated salmonellosis --- sepsis --- time response --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- endotoxaemia --- mouse --- rat --- lipopolysaccharide --- double-stranded RNA --- epithelial cell --- dendritic cell --- allergic respiratory disorder --- hygiene hypothesis --- rhinovirus --- respiratory syncytial virus --- toll-like receptor --- LPS --- lipopolysaccharide --- heptosyltransferase --- protein dynamics --- glycosyltransferase --- GT-B --- inhibitor design --- lipopolysaccharide --- Coxiella burnetii --- Q fever --- phagosome --- virenose --- Plesiomonas shigelloides --- O-antigen --- lipopolysaccharide --- O-acetylation --- d-galactan I --- HR-MAS --- NMR spectroscopy --- endotoxin --- lipopolysaccharide --- Low Endotoxin Recovery --- phase transitions --- polysorbate --- LPS aggregates --- Small Angle X-ray Scattering --- MAT --- LAL and LER --- anti-conjugate serum --- core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- NMR spectroscopy --- ESI MS --- Proteus penneri

Textile Reinforced Cement Composites: New Insights in Structural and Material Engineering

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283309 / 9783039283316 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-331-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue presents the latest advances in the field of Textile-Reinforced Cement Composites, including Textile-Reinforced Concrete (TRC), Textile-Reinforced Mortar (TRM), Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM), etc. These composite materials distinguish themselves from other fibre-reinforced concrete materials by their strain-hardening behaviour under tensile loading. This Special Issue is composed of 14 papers covering new insights in structural and material engineering. The papers include investigations on the level of the fibre reinforcement system as well as on the level of the composites, investigating their impact and fatigue behaviour, durability and fire behaviour. Both the strengthening of existing structures and the development of new structural systems such as lightweight sandwich systems are presented, and analysis and design methods are discussed. This Special Issue demonstrates the broadness and intensity of the ongoing advancements in the field of Textile-Reinforced Cement composites and the importance of several future research directions.

Keywords

textile reinforced concrete --- cathodic corrosion protection --- durability --- bending tests --- fire --- high temperature --- textile coating --- textile reinforced cementitious composites (TRC) --- finite element model --- real scale bending experiments --- shear --- structural insulating sandwich panel --- textile reinforced cementitious composites (TRC), sandwich elements --- fatigue --- uniaxial tensile tests --- four-point bending tests --- digital image correlation (DIC) --- textile reinforced concrete (TRC) --- strengthening --- bending --- model --- design --- practical application --- shear --- textile-reinforced concrete --- carbon concrete composite --- design provisions --- size effect --- shear span --- textile reinforced concrete --- TRC --- fabric reinforced cementitious mortar --- FRCM --- glass fabric --- high performance concrete --- retrofitting --- ACK model --- stochastic cracking model --- alkaline environment --- carbon-reinforced concrete --- creep --- durability --- moisture --- tensile strength --- textile reinforced concrete --- textile reinforced concrete --- carbon reinforced concrete --- TRC --- CRC --- bond --- fatigue --- carbon textile --- epoxy impregnation --- test setup --- textile reinforced mortar --- bond --- masonry --- normal weight/lightweight aggregates --- elevated temperatures --- fiber-reinforced concrete --- crack spacing --- fiber --- micro-fiber --- tensile strength --- toughness --- textile-reinforced concrete --- thin-walled shells --- cementitious composites --- layered finite elements --- mixture rules --- model calibration --- reactive powder concrete (RPC) --- textile reinforced concrete (TRC) --- foam concrete (FC) --- sandwich elements --- wind loading --- finite element analysis (FEA) --- strain-hardening cement-based composites --- textile reinforcement --- short-fiber reinforcement --- hybrid reinforcement --- tension --- impact loading --- single-yarn pullout --- cement composites --- fibre --- textile --- textile-reinforced concrete --- textile-reinforced mortar

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