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Sense of agency: Examining awareness of the acting self

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196241 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-624-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The sense of agency is defined as the sense of oneself as the agent of one's own actions. This also allows oneself to feel distinct from others, and contributes to the subjective phenomenon of self-consciousness (Gallagher, 2000). Distinguishing oneself from others is arguably one of the most important functions of the human brain. Even minor impairments in this ability profoundly affect the individual’s functioning in society as demonstrated by psychiatric and neurological syndromes involving agency disturbances (Della Sala et al., 1991; Franck et al., 2001; Frith, 2005; Sirigu et al., 1999). But the sense of agency also plays a role for cultural and religious phenomena such as voodoo, superstition and gambling, in which individuals experience subjective control over objectively uncontrollable entities (Wegner, 2003). Furthermore, it plays into ethical and law questions concerning responsibility and guilt. For these reasons a better understanding of the sense of agency has been important for neuroscientists, clinicians, philosophers of mind and the general society alike. Significant progress has been made in this regard. For example, philosophical scrutiny has helped establish the conceptual boundaries of the sense of agency (Bayne, 2011; Gallagher, 2000, 2012; Pacherie 2008; Synofzik et al., 2008) and scientific investigations have shed light on the neurocognitive basis of sense of agency including the brain regions supporting sense of agency (Chambon et al., 2013; David et al., 2007; Farrer et al., 2003, 2008; Spengler et al., 2009; Tsakiris et al., 2010; Yomogida et al., 2010). Despite this progress there remain a number of outstanding questions such as: • Are there cross-cultural differences in the sense of agency? • How does the sense of agency develop in infants or change across the lifespan? • How does social context influence sense of agency? • What neural networks support sense of agency (i.e., connectivity and communication between brain regions)? • What are the temporal dynamics with respect to neural processes underlying the sense of agency (i.e. the what and when of agency processing)? • How can different cue models of the sense of agency be further specified and empirically supported, especially with regards to cue integration/ weighting? • What are the applications of sense of agency research (clinically, engineering etc.)? The concept of the sense of agency offers intriguing avenues for knowledge transfer across disciplines and interdisciplinary empirical approaches, especially in addressing the afore-mentioned outstanding questions. The aim of the present research topic is to promote and facilitate such interdisciplinarity for a better understanding of why and how we typically experience our own actions so naturally and undoubtedly as “ours” and what goes awry when we do not. We, thus, welcome contributions from, for example, (i) neuroscience and psychology (including development psychology/ neuroscience), (ii) psychiatry and neurology, (iii) philosophy, (iv) robotics, and (v) computational modeling. In addition to empirical or scientific studies of the sense of agency, we also encourage theoretical contributions including reviews, models, and opinions.

The Limits of Patriarchy: How Female Networks of Pilfering and Gossip Sparked the First Debates on Rural Gender Rights in the 19th-Century Finnish-Language Press

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Book Series: Studia Fennica Ethnologica ISBN: 9789522223272 9789522227928 9789522227584 Year: Pages: 263 DOI: 10.21435/sfe.13 Language: English
Publisher: Finnish Literature Society / SKS Grant: Helsinki University Library and SKS
Subject: Anthropology --- History --- Social Sciences --- Sociology --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-27 11:01:47
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"In the mid-19th century, letters to newspapers in Finland began to condemn a practice known as home thievery, in which farm mistresses pilfered goods from their farms to sell behind the farm master’s back. Why did farm mistresses engage home thievery and why were writers so harsh in their disapproval of it? Why did many men in their letters nonetheless sympathize with women’s pilfering? What opinions did farm daughters express? This book explores theoretical concepts of agency and power applied to the 19th-century context and takes a closer look at the family patriarch, resistance to patriarchal power by farm mistresses and their daughters, and the identities of those Finnish men who already in the 1850s and 1860s sought to defend the rights of rural farm women."

Collaborating Against Child Abuse: Exploring the Nordic Barnahus Model

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ISBN: 9783319583877 9783319583884 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58388-4 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 17:40:40
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This edited collection explores the background and implementation of the Nordic Barnahus (or 'Children's House') model – recognised as one of the most important reforms related to children who are the victims of crime in the Nordic region. This book discusses both its potential to affect change and the challenges facing it. The model was introduced as a response to a growing recognition of the need for more integrated and child-centred services for children exposed to violence and sexual abuse. In the Barnahus structure, different professions work together to ensure that victimized children receive help and treatment and that their legal rights are met. This original study is organised into four broad themes: child-friendliness, support and treatment; the forensic child investigative interview; children’s rights perspectives; and interagency collaboration and professional autonomy. Each themed section includes in-depth chapters from different Nordic countries, outlining and analysing the practice and outcomes of the collaborative work engaged in by Barnahus from different perspectives. The introductory and concluding chapters offer a comparative lens useful for policy and practice implementation within the Nordic welfare state context and beyond, ensuring this book has global academic and practical appeal.

Personal Agency and Swedish Age of Greatness 1560-1720

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Book Series: Studia Fennica Historica ISBN: 9789522228826 9789522229540 9789522229533 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.21435/sfh.23 Language: English
Publisher: Finnish Literature Society / SKS Grant: Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation and SKS
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences --- History --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-09 11:01:58
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"Internationally, the case of early modern Sweden is noteworthy because the state building process transformed a locally dispersed and sparsely populated area into a strongly centralized absolute monarchy and European empire at the beginning of the 17th century. This anthology provides fresh insights into the state-building process in Sweden. During this transitional period, many far-reaching administrative reforms were carried out, and the Swedish state developed into a prime example of the early modern ‘powerstate’. The contributors approach Sweden’s rise to greatness from the point of view of personal agency. In early modern studies, agency has long remained in the shadow of the study of structures and institutions. This novel approach enables us to expose the difficulties, setbacks and false steps that the administration had to deal with. State building was a more diversified and personalized process than has previously been assumed. Numerous individuals were also crucially important actors in the process, and that development itself was not straightforward progression at the macro-level but was intertwined with lower-level actors. Each chapter in this volume employs partially different methods depending on the source material and subject. This means that both qualitative and quantitative material is combined, different ways of making sense of it (i.e. research traditions) are brought together and a multi-method design is used in analyzing source material. One of the central methods is the systematic use of previous biographical research. We want to give the individuals and their actions under discussion a background that reflects the contemporary structures of individual life cycles. With the existing biographical research, it is possible to create a comprehensive set of data that provides the general outlines of individual lives or the career tracks of various estates or social groups, and even to construct collective biographies of certain groups."

Diversity and Universality in Causal Cognition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453610 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-361-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Causality is one of the core concepts in any attempt to make sense of the world, and the explanations people come up with shape their judgments, emotions, intentions and actions. This renders causal cognition a core topic for the social as well as the cognitive sciences. In the past, however, research has been split into diverging paradigms, each pertaining to a distinct (sub)discipline and focusing on a specific domain, thus creating a rather fragmented picture of causal cognition. Furthermore, most of this previous research paid only incidental attention to culture as a possibly constitutive factor, leaving important questions unanswered: Is causality always perceived in the same way? Are causal explanations affected by the concepts to which people refer and/or the language they use? Is causal cognition domain-specific, and if so, how does it differ from agency construal? Is causal reasoning always based on the same cognitive mechanisms, or does the cultural background of people shape how they process respective information - and perhaps even their willingness to search for causal explanations in the first place? By soliciting contributions that address questions like these, this research topic aimed at assessing the extent to which causal cognition may vary across species, cultures, or individuals at various stages of their development, and at integrating different perspectives across a broad range of disciplines. Originating from the work of a research group funded by the Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF) at Bielefeld University, Germany, the scope of this research topic was broadened by inviting additional contributions from researchers with expertise in different fields of causal cognition, agency construal, and/or cultural impacts on cognition. In order to fully exploit the potential of cognitive science, we explicitly encouraged submissions from scholars from all its classic sub-disciplines (i.e., anthropology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, philosophy, psychology) as well as scholars from comparative psychology, cognitive archeology, economics, and any other discipline interested in causal cognition. We welcomed empirical findings as well as theoretical contributions, with an emphasis on those factors that do – or may – constrain, trigger, or shape the way in which humans and other primates think about causal relationships and inform us about both the diversity and the universality of causal cognition.

The Bundesverfassungsgericht’s human dignity review: Solange III and its application in subsequent case law (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781786436047 9781786436054 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.4337/9781786436054 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-13 10:46:35
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In its Solange III judgment, the Bundesverfassungsgericht, the German Federal Constitutional Court, attached a new condition to the primacy of EU law over German constitutional law. It turned the constitutional identity review that it had introduced in its Lisbon judgment into a safeguard mechanism for the protection of human dignity in individual cases. The chapter examines the advent of this new condition in Solange III and its application in subsequent case law of the Bundesverfassungsgericht.

Small Firms and Innovation Policy in Japan

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Book Series: Routledge Contemporary Japan Series ISBN: 9780203027899 9780415368124 9780415651721 9781134207527 9781134207510 9781134207473 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203027899 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:12
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This new book discusses the extent to which the Japanese economy encourages entrepreneurship and innovation. Although Japan has a strong reputation as an innovator, some people argue that this reputation is misplaced. Contrary to earlier expectations, the USA rather than Japan emerged as the leader in the biotech industries in the 1990s, and also many small firms in Japan supply only a few – or just one – other company, thereby limiting their view of the marketplace and the commercial opportunities within it. Despite the increase of international patents, international scientific citations and a positive technology trade balance, the Japanese innovation system is weak in giving birth to radical innovations. The book explores fully these issues, making comparisons with other countries where appropriate. It concludes that the Japanese innovation system has both advantages and disadvantages and contributes to a better understanding of how policy changes take place.

Keywords

japanese --- system --- economy --- supplier --- medium --- enterprise --- agency --- manufacturing --- extension --- partnership

Changing Transatlantic Security Relations

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Book Series: Contemporary Security Studies ISBN: 9780203969564 9780415391160 9780415544962 9781134166367 9781134166350 9781134166312 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203969564 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology --- Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:29
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This new book shows how the idea of a strategic triangle can illuminate the security relationships among the United States, the European Union and Russia in the greater transatlantic sphere. This concept highlights how the relationships among these three actors may, on some issues, be closely related. A central question also follows directly from the use of the notion of the triangle: does the EU have actor capability in this policy sphere or will it get it in the future? The reason this is so important for our project is that only if the Union is regarded by the two other actors, and regards itself, as an actor in security policy does the strategic triangle really exists. Consequently, this book has a strong focus upon the development of the actor capability of the Union. In the case of the United States, it examines to what extent the concept of the strategic triangle has significance under each of five grand strategies that serve as alternative visions of the superpower’s role in the world.

Keywords

strategic --- triangle --- european --- defence --- agency --- petersberg --- tasks --- military --- crisis --- management

Chapter 7 Who connects the dots? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138615397 Year: Pages: 24 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:28:19
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This book responds to a gap in the literature in International Relations (IR) by integrating technology more systematically into analyses of global politics.Technology facilitates, accelerates, automates, and exercises capabilities that are greater than human abilities. And yet, within IR, the role of technology often remains under-studied. Building on insights from science and technology studies (STS), assemblage theory and new materialism, this volume asks how international politics are made possible, knowable, and durable by and through technology. The contributors provide empirically rich and pertinent accounts of a variety of technologies relevant to the discipline, including drones, algorithms, satellite imagery, border management databases, and blockchains. Problematizing various technologically mediated issues, such as secrecy, violence, and questions of how authority and evidence become constituted in international contexts, this book will be of interest to scholars in IR, in particular those who work in the subfields of (critical) security studies, International Political Economy, and Global Governance.

France, Europe and Development Aid. From the Treaties of Rome to the Present Day

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782821838826 DOI: 10.4000/books.igpde.2932 Language: English
Publisher: Institut de la gestion publique et du développement économique
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:30
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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This book is based on the proceedings of a major conference on France, Europe and development aid, from the Treaties of Rome to the present day, organised by the French Development Agency (AFD) and the Institute of Public Management and Economic Development (IGPDE). It presents, in the form of a dialogue between academics and major players in this field (Philippe de Fontaine Vive, Dieter Frisch, Omar Kabbaj, Bernard Petit, Dov Zerah and Tertius Zongo), an overview of development cooperation from the point of view of three key players: the AFD together with the French government, the European Commission and the recipient countries. France’s aid has, since 1945, clearly been driven by humanitarian, moral and political considerations as well as by the defence of French economic interests. It is one of the instruments of French influence in international relations. What is the role of French development assistance now that a “new” player, the European Commission, has been involved in this field since 1958? What sort of development policy do the Member States of the European Union and the Commission envisage? What role is there for France in the European dimension of assistance? Is there still room for official assistance within a liberalised economic area, in which private enterprise is paramount? The answers provided to these questions show that European societies do not view international relations simply in terms of economic confrontation or cold indifference. The conference on 8 December 2011 celebrated the 70th anniversary of the Agence Française de Développement (AFD), successor to the Caisse centrale de la France libre, which was created by General de Gaulle in London on 2 December 1941.

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