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Advancements in Gel Science—A Special Issue in Memory of Toyoichi Tanaka

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ISBN: 9783039213436 9783039213443 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

A gel is a state of matter that consists of a three-dimensional cross-linked polymer network and a large amount of solvent. Because of their structural characteristics, gels play important roles in science and technology. The science of gels has attracted much attention since the discovery of the volume phase transition by Professor Toyoichi Tanala at MIT in 1978. MDPI planned to publish a Special Issue in Gels to celebrate the 40th anniversary of this discovery, which received submissions of 13 original papers and one review from various areas of science. We believe that readers will find this Special Issue informative as to the recent advancements of gel research and the broad background of gel science.

Keywords

gel --- thermoresponsive property --- monomer sequence --- co-crosslinking --- copolymerization --- acrylamide derivative --- swelling --- volume phase transition --- agarose gel --- compression --- solvent transport --- sucrose --- xylitol --- volume phase transition --- effects of electric charge --- swelling of thermosensitive gels --- sol-gel transition --- site-bond correlated-percolation model for polymer gelation --- gelation temperature --- cloud point temperature --- spinodal temperature --- spinodal decomposition --- janus particle --- anisotropic shape --- phase separation --- wetting --- micrometric confinement --- micropipette aspiration --- PVA gel --- gamma ray sterilization --- artificial hydrogel cartilage --- frictional property --- wear --- xerogel --- Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory --- Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis --- temperature --- solids content --- drying --- solvent exchange --- microgel --- electrophoresis --- light scattering --- paint coating --- wrinkle --- swelling --- buckling --- Sephadex® (crosslinked dextran) --- crosslink density (density of crosslinks) --- ice grain --- ice crystallization during rewarming --- glassy water --- X-ray CT --- XRD --- poly(vinyl alcohol) --- chemical gel --- microcrystallite --- hydrogen bond --- swelling behavior --- hysteresis --- hydrogel --- friction --- fatigue --- wear --- fracture --- crack --- adhesion --- delamination --- poly (acryl amide) gel --- time domain reflectometry (TDR) of dielectric spectroscopy --- pulse field gradient spin echo method of nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) --- scaling analysis --- fractal analysis --- heterogeneous gelation dynamics --- moving boundary picture --- phase transition dynamics --- kinetic coefficient --- blood coagulation --- n/a

Biological Crystallization

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ISBN: 9783039214037 9783039214044 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-404-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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For at least six hundred million years, life has been a fascinating laboratory of crystallization, referred to as biomineralization. During this huge lapse of time, many organisms from diverse phyla have developed the capability to precipitate various types of minerals, exploring distinctive pathways for building sophisticated structural architectures for different purposes. The Darwinian exploration was performed by trial and error, but the success in terms of complexity and efficiency is evident. Understanding the strategies that those organisms employ for regulating the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanocrystals to build these sophisticated devices is an intellectual challenge and a source of inspiration in fields as diverse as materials science, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. However, “Biological Crystallization” is a broader topic that includes biomineralization, but also the laboratory crystallization of biological compounds such as macromolecules, carbohydrates, or lipids, and the synthesis and fabrication of biomimetic materials by different routes. This Special Issue collects 15 contributions ranging from biological and biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica-carbonate self-assembled materials to the crystallization of biological macromolecules. Special attention has been paid to the fundamental phenomena of crystallization (nucleation and growth), and the applications of the crystals in biomedicine, environment, and materials science.

Keywords

polymyxin resistance --- colistin resistance --- MCR-1 --- protein crystal nucleation --- thermodynamic and energetic approach --- protein ‘affinity’ to water --- solubility --- balance between crystal bond energy and destructive surface energies --- supersaturation dependence of the crystal nucleus size --- ependymin (EPN) --- ependymin-related protein (EPDR) --- mammalian ependymin-related protein (MERP) --- Campylobacter consisus --- Crohn’s disease --- circular dichroism --- protein crystallization --- Csep1p --- protein crystallization --- biochemical aspects of the protein crystal nucleation --- classical and two-step crystal nucleation mechanisms --- bond selection during protein crystallization --- equilibration between crystal bond and destructive energies --- protein crystal nucleation in pores --- crystallization in solution flow --- crystallization --- microseed matrix screening --- seeding --- optimization --- human carbonic anhydrase IX --- neutron protein crystallography --- microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) --- heavy metals --- wastewater treatment --- bioprecipitation --- calcium carbonate --- drug discovery --- education --- crystallization --- crystallography --- nucleation --- micro-crystals --- agarose --- ferritin --- lysozyme --- proteinase k --- insulin --- calcium carbonate --- {00.1} calcite --- lithium ions --- ultrasonic irradiation --- vaterite transformation --- adsorption --- calcein --- crystal violet --- dyes --- diffusion --- H3O+ --- reductants --- color change --- gradients --- biomorphs --- barium carbonate --- silica --- PCDA --- pyrrole --- droplet array --- crystal growth --- calcium carbonate --- high-throughput --- biomimetic crystallization --- biomineralization --- polyacrylic acid --- Cry protein crystals --- metallothioneins --- bioremediation --- heavy metal contamination --- nanoapatites --- graphene --- crystallization --- nanocomposites --- lysozyme --- L-tryptophan --- N-acetyl-D-glucosamine --- chitosan --- MTT assay --- GTL-16 cells --- Haloalkane dehalogenase --- halide-binding site --- random microseeding --- biomineralization --- biomimetic materials --- biomorphs --- calcium carbonate --- nanoapatites --- nucleation --- growth --- crystallization of macromolecules --- bioremediation --- materials science --- biomedicine

Design and Development of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039287383 / 9783039287390 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-739-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Due to their unique size-dependent physicochemical properties, nanostructured thin films are used in a wide range of applications from smart coating and drug delivery to electrocatalysis and highly-sensitive sensors. Depending on the targeted application and the deposition technique, these materials have been designed and developed by tuning their atomic-molecular 2D- and/or 3D-aggregation, thickness, crystallinity, and porosity, having effects on their optical, mechanical, catalytic, and conductive properties. Several open questions remain about the impact of nanomaterial production and use on environment and health. Many efforts are currently being made not only to prevent nanotechnologies and nanomaterials from contributing to environmental pollution but also to design nanomaterials to support, control, and protect the environment. This Special Issue aims to cover the recent advances in designing nanostructured films focusing on environmental issues related to their fabrication processes (e.g., low power and low cost technologies, the use of environmentally friendly solvents), their precursors (e.g., waste-recycled, bio-based, biodegradable, and natural materials), their applications (e.g., controlled release of chemicals, mimicking of natural processes, and clean energy conversion and storage), and their use in monitoring environment pollution (e.g., sensors optically- or electrically-sensitive to pollutants)

Keywords

InAlN --- nanospiral --- metamaterial --- sputtering --- chirality --- microparticle deposition --- self-assembly --- homogeneity --- monomer synthesis --- mask --- hazardous organic solvents --- photonic nanostructures --- self-assembly --- polymer nanoparticles --- biomimetic solvent sensors --- iridescence --- mesoporous --- Al2O3 --- MgO --- poly(dimethylacrylamide) --- hydrogel --- thin film --- spin coating --- SEM --- FIB --- Kr physisorption --- hydrogenated amorphous carbon films --- metallic nanoparticles --- hybrid deposition system --- nanoscratch --- nanocomposites --- aqueous dispersion --- carbon nanotube --- graphene oxide --- ink --- rod coating --- electrical conductivity --- optical transmittance --- mechanical flexibility --- silk sericin --- agarose --- lysozyme --- composite gel --- wound dressing --- nanofiber --- lamination --- water filtration --- CdTe --- self-catalysed --- wires --- Mg alloy --- LDH --- corrosion --- deposition --- coating --- ReB2/TaN multilayers --- modulation structure --- first-principles calculation --- interfacial model --- adsorption energy --- interfacial energy --- biomaterial --- biomedical --- nanofibers --- scaffolds --- reinforced --- hybrid material --- thermal analysis --- nanofibrous membranes --- light trapping --- silicon thin film --- photovoltaics --- polystyrene sphere assisted lithography --- nanostructured back reflectors --- Raman scattering --- quantum confinement --- electron–phonon coupling --- polar semiconductors --- zinc oxide --- metal-organic framework --- microscopy --- thin films --- powders --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- barrier material --- nanocoating of SiOx --- polymeric matrix --- plasma deposition --- PVD --- PA-PVD --- PECVD --- permeation --- CERAMIS® --- SorpTest --- iron oxides --- FeO --- Fe3O4 --- ultrathin films --- epitaxial growth --- platinum --- ruthenium --- symmetry --- LEEM --- LEED --- XPEEM --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- thin films --- TiO2NPs --- AuNPs --- photocatalysis --- mercury vapors adsorbing layer --- PAS device --- iron oxides --- ultrathin films --- silver --- epitaxial growth --- structural characterization --- STM --- LEED --- XPS --- DFT --- model system --- Pt thin deposits --- galvanic displacement --- UPD --- SLRR --- electrocatalysis --- nanostructured films --- birefringence --- nanocrystalline cellulose --- Mueller matrix --- vanadium dioxide --- post-treatment --- plasma irradiation --- luminous transmittance --- phase transition performance --- electrospinning deposition --- chemosensor --- nanocomposite conductive polymers --- polyhydroxibutyrate --- polystyrene --- H2TPP --- VOCs selectivity --- mesoporous graphene --- thin film --- nanostructure --- CaxCoO2 --- sputtering --- phase transformation --- Ge surface engineering --- La2O3 passivation layer --- atomic layer deposition --- electrical properties

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english (2)

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2020 (1)

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