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Graphene-Polymer Composites

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ISBN: 9783038970415 9783038970422 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-042-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-13 11:10:39
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Presenting very high surface-to-volume ratio, relatively simple processability and low cost, graphene and graphene-related materials were soon identified as promising nanofillers for polymer matrixes. Reports have shown notorious property enhancements for graphene-polymer composites (GPC) at very low filler loadings. Uses of GPC in varied fields, such as energy, electronics, catalysis, separation and purification, biomedicine, aerospace, tribology, etc., have been demonstrated and, in some cases, put into industrial practice. However, challenges still exist. Platelet agglomeration within the polymer matrix is often seen to hinder performance improvements. Poor interfacial adhesion between filler and matrix is also a limiting factor in many systems, demanding for tuning the surface chemistry to promote physical or chemical interactions with the polymer chains. The range of routes for fabrication of graphene-related materials, leading to different morphologies, oxidation states, and degrees of platelet exfoliation, have an impact on the final properties of the composites that has not yet been fully addressed. Some argue that the potential of graphene, and its advantages in relation to other nanofillers, has not yet been clearly demonstrated for polymer composites. This Special Issue provides a state of the art view on the different facets of graphene-polymer composite materials, showing that this area of research is thriving and relevant advancements are still to be expected.

Flexible Electronics: Fabrication and Ubiquitous Integration

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ISBN: 9783038978282 9783038978299 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-829-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Flexible Electronics platforms are increasingly used in the fields of sensors, displays, and energy conversion with the ultimate goal of facilitating their ubiquitous integration in our daily lives. Some of the key advantages associated with flexible electronic platforms are: bendability, lightweight, elastic, conformally shaped, nonbreakable, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and large-area. To realize their full potential, however, it is necessary to develop new methods for the fabrication of multifunctional flexible electronics at a reduced cost and with an increased resistance to mechanical fatigue. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase short communications, research papers, and review articles that focus on novel methodological development for the fabrication, and integration of flexible electronics in healthcare, environmental monitoring, displays and human-machine interactivity, robotics, communication and wireless networks, and energy conversion, management, and storage.

Bioactive and Therapeutic Dental Materials

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ISBN: 9783039214198 9783039214204 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-420-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book focus principally on ions-releasing and other smart dental materials for application in preventive and restorative dentistry, as well as in endodontics in the form of adhesives, resin-based composites, pastes, varnishes, liners and dental cements. Special attention has been given to bioactive materials developed to induce cells differentiation/stimulation, hard tissue formation and exert antimicrobial actions. New innovations are necessary to continue to help reinforcing existing technologies and to introduce new paradigms for treating dental disease and restoring teeth seriously compromised by caries lesions via biomimetic and more biological operative approaches. Dental bioactive materials is arguably the latest research area in dentistry and thus the amount of new research is overwhelming. However, in this day and age of evidence based practice it important for this new information to be distilled into a practical and understandable format.

Keywords

orthodontic resin --- photocatalyst TiO2 --- antibacterial --- cariogenic --- early colonizer --- hydrophilic properties --- irradiation --- calcium silicate cements --- pulpal response --- mineralization --- calcific barrier --- inflammation --- odontoblastic layer --- resin cements --- shrinkage stress --- water sorption --- hydroscopic expansion --- photoelastic investigation --- antibacterial --- calcium --- doxycycline --- nanoparticles --- zinc --- dental composites --- antibacterial properties --- silver --- mechanical properties --- degree of conversion --- sorption --- solubility --- color stability --- mechanical properties --- nanotubes --- resin composite --- Streptococcus mutans --- triclosan --- bleaching products --- diffusion --- cytotoxicity --- dental pulp --- stem cells --- nanoporous silica --- glass-ionomer cement --- calcium --- preclinical biosafety --- bone substitute --- mesenchymal stem cells --- ?-tricalcium phosphate --- tissue engineering --- dental sealant --- resin sealant --- calcium phosphate nanoparticles --- long-term ion release --- remineralization --- ion recharge --- dentin --- desmineralization --- microtensile bond strength --- adhesion --- bioactive --- cycling mechanical stress --- dentine --- longevity --- resin-modified glass ionomer cements --- polyacrylic acid treatment --- bone regeneration --- ?-tricalcium phosphate --- calcium sulfate --- bone substitutes --- animal study --- n/a --- adhesion --- cycling mechanical stress --- dentine --- longevity --- glass-ionomer cements --- universal adhesives

Advances in Wood Composites

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ISBN: 9783039285846 / 9783039285853 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-585-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Wood composites have shown very good performance, and substantial service lives when correctly specified for the exposure risks present. Selection of an appropriate product for the job should be accompanied by decisions about the appropriate protection, whether this is by design, by preservative treatment or by wood modification techniques. This Special Issue, Advances in Wood Composites presents recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart nanomaterials, which have made them a particular area of interest for researchers. In addition, it reviews some important aspects in the field of wood composites, with particular focus on their materials, applications, and engineering and scientific advances, including solutions inspired biomimetrically by the structure of wood and wood composites. This Special Issue, with a collection of 13 original contributions, provides selected examples of recent Advances in Wood Composites

Keywords

wood --- thermal modification --- mechanical properties --- dimensional stability --- color --- chemical structure --- VOCs --- alder plywood --- high-density polyethylene film --- bending strength --- modulus of elasticity in bending --- shear strength --- thickness swelling --- water absorption --- activation volume --- creep behavior --- sol-gel process --- stepped isostress method --- wood-inorganic composites --- wood adhesive --- tunnel-structured --- sepiolite --- rapid formaldehyde release --- wood plastic composite --- graphene nano-platelets --- thermal property --- mechanical property --- water-based UV curing coating --- coating amount --- surface properties --- polyurethane-acrylate --- oak (Quercus alba L.) --- bamboo --- carbothermal reduction --- ceramic --- silicon carbide --- sol–gel process --- thermal modification --- nanocompounds --- mechanical and physical properties --- cellulose --- crystallinity --- biorefinery lignin --- wood panels --- sustainable adhesives --- adhesive penetration --- particleboard properties --- formaldehyde emissions --- bamboo --- chemical modification --- dimensional stability --- dynamic thermodynamic --- acetic anhydride --- methyl methacrylate --- polymer-triticale boards --- thermoplastic polymers --- straw --- hydrophobicity --- mechanical properties --- oriented strand lumber (OSL) --- nanowollastonite --- mechanical and physical properties --- UF resin --- buckling --- WPC --- HDPE --- Southwell’s method --- finite element analysis --- Abaqus --- aquacultural --- structural analysis --- wood --- plastic --- composite --- n/a

Polymeric Foams

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ISBN: 9783039216321 9783039216338 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-633-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Advances in nanotechnology have boosted the development of more efficient materials, with emerging sectors (electronics, energy, aerospace, etc.) demanding novel materials to fulfill the complex technical requirements of their products. This is the case of polymeric foams, which may display good structural properties alongside functional characteristics through a complex composition and (micro)structure in which a gas phase is combined with rigid ones, mainly based on nanoparticles, dispersed throughout the polymer matrix. In recent years, there has been an important impulse in the development of nanocomposite foams, extending the concept of nanocomposites to the field of cellular materials. This, alongside developments in new advanced foaming technologies which have allowed the generation of foams with micro, sub-micro, and even nanocellular structures, has extended the applications of more traditional foams in terms of weight reduction, damping, and thermal and/or acoustic insulation to novel possibilities, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. This Special Issue, which consists of a total of 22 articles, including one review article written by research groups of experts in the field, considers recent research on novel polymer-based foams in all their aspects: design, composition, processing and fabrication, microstructure, characterization and analysis, applications and service behavior, recycling and reuse, etc.

Keywords

grey relational analysis --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- acoustic performances --- Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer --- polyurethane foam composites --- DOPO --- itaconic acid --- ethyl cellulose --- phenolic foams --- composites --- adjacent façade --- PUR --- energy conservation --- heat transfer --- burning characteristic --- semi-rigid polyurethane foams --- aluminum microfibers --- quasi-static compression tests --- mechanical properties --- energy absorption capability --- foams --- polyamide --- crystalline --- thermal conductivity --- mechanical property --- functional --- biomaterials --- composites --- EMI --- cellulose foam --- polypropylene --- foaming quality --- impact property --- intrinsic toughness --- flame-retardant ABS microcellular foams --- phosphorus flame retardants --- MuCell® injection-molding foaming --- graphene oxide --- rigid polyurethane foam --- thermogravimetric analysis --- activation energies --- extrusion foaming --- super critical CO2 --- lignin --- sound absorption coefficient --- mechanical property --- Pluronic --- surfactants --- foams --- SANS --- multilayers --- epoxy composite foam adhesive --- core–shell rubber --- impact wedge–peel test --- automobile structural adhesives --- flame retardancy --- foams --- phosphorus --- ternary synergistic effect --- polypropylene --- fluoelastomer --- scCO2 foaming --- heterogeneous nucleation --- polypropylene --- cellulose nanofiber --- foam injection molding --- mechanical properties --- polystyrene foams --- 1,3,5-benzene-trisamides --- cell nucleation --- foam extrusion --- foam morphology --- supramolecular additives --- thermal insulation --- compression properties --- piezoelectric --- functional foam --- piezocomposite --- PZT --- expandable microspheres --- permittivity --- polyetherimide foams --- graphene --- multifunctional foams --- ultrasonication --- scCO2 --- electrical conductivity --- polymer waste --- polyurethane foam --- leaching test --- microstructure --- absorbent PMI foam --- metallic tube --- electromagnetic wave absorption --- mechanical properties --- failure mechanism --- polymers --- foams --- shock compression --- equation of state --- epoxy --- foams --- expandable microspheres --- graphene --- nanotubes --- conductivity --- syntactic foams --- n/a

Polymeric Systems as Antimicrobial or Antifouling Agents

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ISBN: 9783039284566 / 9783039284573 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-457-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The rapid increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, combined with a dwindling rate of discovery of novel antibiotic molecules, has created an alarming issue worldwide. Although the occurrence of resistance in microbes is a natural process, the overuse of antibiotics is known to increase the rate of resistance evolution. Under antibiotic treatment, susceptible bacteria inevitably die, while resistant microorganisms proliferate under reduced competition. Therefore, the out-of-control use of antibiotics eliminates drug-susceptible species that would naturally limit the expansion of resistant species. In addition, the ability of many microbial species to grow as a biofilm has further complicated the treatment of infections with conventional antibiotics. A number of corrective measures are currently being explored to reverse or slow antibiotic resistance evolution, Among which one of the most promising solutions is the development of polymer-based antimicrobial compounds. In this Special Issue, different polymer systems able to prevent or treat biofilm formation, including cationic polymers, antibacterial peptide-mimetic polymers, polymers or composites able to load and release bioactive molecules, and antifouling polymers able to repel microbes by physical or chemical mechanisms are reported. Their applications in the design and fabrication of medical devices, in food packaging, and as drug carriers is investigated.

Keywords

cationic polymers --- imidization --- quaternization --- antimicrobial properties --- hemolytic activity --- coatings from nanoparticles --- biocompatible polymer --- antimicrobial polymer --- dynamic light scattering --- coatings wettability --- microbicidal coatings --- bacteria viability --- bactericidal coatings --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Acinetobacter baumannii --- multidrug-resistant --- antimicrobial peptide --- antibiofilm activity --- physiological salt --- biofilm --- anti-biofilm surface --- surface functionalization --- ?-chymotrypsin --- proteinase --- antimicrobial polymers --- quaternary ammonium --- 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate --- thermal stability --- polymers --- antibacterial --- drug delivery --- periodontitis --- periodontal biofilms --- polyamide 11 --- antibacterial --- polymeric biocide --- thermal stability --- biofilm --- antifouling --- copper paint --- additives --- biofilm --- lipopeptides --- biofilm --- persister cells --- ocular infections --- biofilm on contact lenses --- cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- linear low-density polyethylene --- composites --- adhesives --- antibacterial activity --- water disinfection --- active packaging --- antimicrobial peptides --- food shelf-life --- foodborne pathogens --- plastic materials --- antibacterial peptides --- halictine --- circular dichroism --- fluorescence --- infrared spectroscopy --- segmented polyurethanes --- polyethylene glycol --- microbial biofilm --- antifouling materials --- medical device-related infections --- wound dressings --- additive manufacturing --- antibacterial polymers --- biocompatible systems --- drug delivery systems --- 3D printing --- amorphous materials --- ordered mesoporous silica --- sol-gel preparation --- drug carrier --- multifunctional hybrid systems --- olive mill wastewater --- antibacterial properties --- layered double hydroxides --- bionanocomposites --- acrylates --- antibacterial activity --- copolymerization --- polymeric films --- polymerizable quaternary ammonium salts --- quaternary ammonium salts --- UV-induced polymerization --- antimicrobial resistance --- antimicrobial polymers --- ESKAPE pathogens --- anti-biofilm surfaces --- polymeric surfaces --- biofilm methods --- biofilm analysis --- biofilm devices --- n/a

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english (4)

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