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Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Executive Control Across the Lifespan

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197484 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-748-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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There is overwhelming evidence linking increased physical activity with positive changes in cognitive functioning and brain health. Much of what we know about these interrelationships comes from aerobic exercise training studies with older adults and children. This literature has paved the way for the neuroscientific investigation of mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cognitive and brain health enhancement, a list that ranges from molecular changes to systemic changes in executive control and neural connectivity. A new perspective has also emerged that aims to understand executive control processes that may underlie the regulation of health behavior. In accordance with this view, physical activity falls under the umbrella of health behaviors that require a substantial amount of executive control. Executive control is a limited resource, and the aging process depletes this resource. People who regularly exercise are said to have higher “self-regulatory control”—planning, goal-shielding and impulse control—than irregular exercisers. The successful maintenance of physical activity participation in lieu of daily cognitive stressors likely reflects an adaptive resistance to control failures. Indeed, a handful of studies have shown the relationship between greater executive control and subsequently higher levels of physical activity. However, little is known about the neural correlates of physical activity adherence or sedentary behavior, with the view that neurocognitive factors have an antecedent and reciprocal influence on these behaviors. No research has focused on the brain networks responsible for the self-regulation of physical activity, which likely overlaps with structures and functions playing critical roles in the regulation of other health behaviors. Interdisciplinary investigations are needed to explain the extent to which physical activity self-regulation and self-regulatory failure is dependent upon, or under the influence of executive control processes and brain networks. Understanding the degree to which self-regulatory resources may be enhanced, restored, and trained will have enormous implications for basic science and applied fields. It is also of great import to understand whether or not physical activity self-regulation is a domain-specific behavior associated with specific brain networks, or to determine the extent to which regulatory network-sharing occurs. The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to curate contributions from researchers in social and cognitive neurosciences and related fields, whose work involves the study of physical activity behavior, self-regulation and executive control. For this Research Topic, we, therefore, solicit reviews, original research articles, and opinion papers, which draw theoretical or empirical connections related to sustained physical activity behavior, self-regulatory strategies, cognitive performance, and brain structure and function. While focusing on work in the neurosciences, this Research Topic also welcomes contributions in the form of behavioral studies, psychophysiological investigations, and methodological innovations. This Frontiers Research Topic will carve out new directions for the fields of exercise, cognitive, and social neurosciences. We hope you will consider submitting your work.

Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Clinical Practice

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ISBN: 9783038429302 9783038429296 Year: Pages: X, 224 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 07:58:29
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The present Special Issue Book is a collection of scientific articles from the European Conferences of Religion, Spirituality and Health in 2014 (Malta) and 2016 (Gdansk). The overall theme is “Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Clinical Practice”. Studies are grouped under four main topics: Religion and Spirituality in Patient Care, Spirituality in Physical and Mental Disease, Health Care Professionals and Spirituality, and Faith-Based Services and Programs in Health Care. The chapters illustrate the broad range of topics presented.

Gluten-Free Diet

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ISBN: 9783038977360 9783038977377 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-737-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In the last few years, an increasing number of individuals have adopted a gluten free diet (GFD). A significant proportion of that includes patients affected by celiac disease (CD), who have to follow a strict GFD for medical purposes. However, a high number of individuals are currently following a GFD without medical counseling and without a specific diagnosis needing a gluten withdrawal from the diet. This is due to the frequently incorrect information diffused on the Internet and mass media on the topic of GFD. For these reasons, research on the GFD and its clinical use and biological effects is urgently needed.

Keywords

Celiac Disease --- depression --- gluten-free diet --- dietary adherence --- gluten --- gastric emptying --- cholecyst --- celiac disease --- non celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- quality of life --- Brazilian CD-QoL --- quality of life --- celiac disease --- questionnaire --- coeliac disease --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- fortification --- micronutrient --- cost --- celiac disease --- diagnosis --- gliadin --- gluten --- glutenin --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- oral food challenge --- pepsin --- wheat allergy --- celiac disease (CD) --- quality of life (QoL) --- gluten-free diet --- disease duration --- place of residence --- educational level --- economic status --- body mass index (BMI) --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- children --- teenagers --- gluten-related disorders --- celiac disease --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- Pseudomonas --- gluten-free diet --- mineral --- deficiency --- calcium --- iron --- magnesium --- zinc --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gut motility --- gluten-free diet --- gluten-related disorders --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- irritable bowel syndrome --- mood disorders --- affective disorders --- depression --- major depressive disorder --- mental health --- nutrition --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- diary recommended intake --- food habit --- body composition --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- gluten --- wheat --- low FODMAP diet --- irritable bowel syndrome --- beta cell --- beta-cell stress --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- high-fat diet-induced obesity --- intestinal permeability --- islet of Langerhans --- NOD mouse --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- FODMAP intake --- celiac disease --- irritable bowel syndrome --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- effectiveness --- adherence --- nutritionists --- clinic --- serology --- duodenal biopsies --- structured questionnaires --- peptides derived from gluten in faeces and urine --- gluten --- adherence --- serology --- villous atrophy --- mucosal recovery --- threshold --- celiac disease --- body composition --- gluten free diet --- children --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- screening --- outcome --- gluten sensitivity --- osteoporosis --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten re-introduction --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- ?-gliadin --- 33-mer --- DQ2.5-glia-?1 --- DQ2.5-glia-?2 --- DQ2.5-glia-?3 epitopes --- wheat species --- n/a --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- non-coeliac wheat sensitivity --- gliadin --- microbiota

Pharmacist Services

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ISBN: 9783039217540 9783039217557 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-755-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The overall goal of this book is to give the reader a state-of-the-art synopsis of the pharmacist services domain. To accomplish this goal, the authors have addressed the social, psychosocial, political, legal, historic, clinical, and economic factors that are associated with pharmacist services. In this book, you will gain cutting-edge insights from learning about the research of experts throughout the world. The findings have relevance for enhancing pharmacist professionalism, pharmacist practice, and the progression of pharmacist services in the future.

Keywords

ambulatory care --- pharmacy practice faculty --- pharmacy learners --- clinical practice --- pharmacist services --- community pharmacy practice --- dispensing --- counselling --- pharmaceutical intervention --- pharmaceutical care --- observation --- immunization programs --- mobile health units --- experiential learning --- billing --- healthy people 2020 --- pharmacy --- emergency unit --- health workers --- cystic fibrosis --- pharmacists --- pharmacy services, medication management --- medication use burden --- travel --- immunization --- vaccination --- pharmacist --- community pharmacy --- pharmacy intern --- student pharmacist --- primary care --- interprofessional --- federally qualified health center --- serviced marketing --- design thinking --- medication synchronization --- community pharmacists --- innovation science --- adherence --- competitive advantage --- age disparities --- gender disparities --- job satisfaction --- job-related preferences --- pharmacist workforce --- pharmacists --- pharmacy education --- interprofessional practice and education --- community pharmacy --- medication therapy management --- medication-related problems --- medication discrepancies --- continuity of patient care --- cost avoidance --- Comprehensive Medication Management --- pharmaceutical care --- primary health care --- chronic diseases --- clinical results --- naltrexone --- opioid use disorder --- implementation --- service process --- regulatory --- community pharmacy --- pharmacist services --- opioid --- communication --- naloxone --- misuse --- disposal --- safety --- counseling --- comprehensive medication review --- community pharmacy --- collaboration --- community pharmacy --- pharmaceutical care --- medication therapy management --- pharmacy practice --- pharmacy education --- grants --- pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) --- ethics --- pharmaceutical regulation --- health care policy --- decision-making --- organizations --- ethical models --- code of ethics --- pharmacist --- adverse drug events --- brown bag --- pharmacy --- medication reconciliation --- pharmacy clinical services --- comprehensive medication management services --- medication experience --- pharmaceutical care practice --- documentation --- focus groups --- community pharmacy --- retail clinics --- pharmacists --- nurse practitioners --- interprofessional training --- primary care --- healthcare access --- community pharmacy --- pharmacist services --- wellness programs --- medication adherence --- quality measurement/benchmarking --- multiple chronic conditions --- CMS Star rating --- chronic kidney disease --- interprofessional care --- quality assurance --- pharmacy communication --- cue orientation --- focus group interviews --- Denmark --- transitions in care --- pharmacist --- medication therapy problems --- medication safety --- comprehensive medication management --- readmissions --- intention --- medication therapy management --- pharmacy services --- South Asian --- theory of planned behavior. --- pharmacist services --- community pharmacy --- care plan --- compensation --- primary health care --- information sharing --- qualitative research --- comparative case study --- value --- human papilloma virus --- HPV vaccination --- pharmacy --- coordinated care --- history of pharmacy --- 20th century history --- 21st century history --- community pharmacy services --- pharmacy education --- pharmacist --- services marketing --- management --- value-added services --- community-based pharmacy --- community-based pharmacist practitioners --- community pharmacy services --- health policy --- interrupted time series analysis --- medication reconciliation --- mental health care --- pharmacy staff --- mental health first aid --- mental illness --- pharmacist roles --- n/a --- collaborative practice --- clinical pharmacy --- advanced practice pharmacist provider

Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

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ISBN: 9783039216000 9783039216017 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new information on the existing research elucidating important aspects of children’s and adolescents’ nutrition and lifestyle behavior. The data included in this Special Issue are from large epidemiological studies, including several multicenter and multinational studies, as well as datasets from surveillance initiatives. The topics of interest of this Special Issue include the co-occurrence of multiple health behaviors in children, the role of parenting and early feeding practices, dairy consumption in childhood, validity of dietary intake data, dietary supplement use in children, as well as socioeconomic disparities and eating culture. The diverse articles in this Special Issue highlight the complexity and extent to which nutrition and physical activity behaviors may influence different health aspects of children and adolescents. As seen by the various findings and recommendations, not only is more work in this area required but the translation of this work to practice and policy is imperative if we are to address the challenges impacting the nutrition, physical activity, and health of young populations.

Keywords

diet --- inflammation --- children’s-dietary inflammatory index --- body composition --- primary school --- dietary pattern --- principal component analysis --- reduced rank regression --- prevention --- validation study --- dietary assessment methods --- food diary --- cross-classification --- children --- whole diet --- preschool --- DAGIS Study --- diet quality --- PANDiet index --- early childhood --- nutritional adequacy --- nutrient intake quality --- growing up milk --- eating behaviour --- psychological eating style --- negative emotions --- Emotion-Induced Eating Scale --- health behaviour --- BMI --- home food environment --- Healthy Eating Index --- dietary quality --- validation --- psychometric --- consumption behavior --- knowledge --- Melanesian --- Pacific --- physical activity --- sugar-sweetened beverage --- noncommunicable diseases --- weight status --- self-weight perception --- cluster analysis --- energy balance-related behaviors --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- screen time --- dietary intake --- overweight --- obesity --- children --- family meals --- food parenting practices --- preschoolers --- nutrition risk --- direct observation --- adolescents --- children --- determinants --- dietary supplements --- food choice --- intervention --- nutrition --- preschool --- child --- parent --- dairy --- calcium --- migration status --- dietary habits --- food frequency questionnaire --- socioeconomic disparities --- adolescents --- pediatric --- overweight --- epidemiological transition --- collaboration --- childhood obesity --- CEBQ --- eating behavior and Ile251Leu --- breakfast --- obesity --- cardiovascular --- health --- BMI --- waist circumference --- cholesterol --- blood pressure --- MyHeARTs --- breastfeeding --- formula milk --- taste preference --- healthy diet adherence --- children --- IDEFICS study --- I.Family --- screen time --- physical activity --- preschool children --- food and beverage consumption --- Physical activity --- exercise --- food intake --- diet --- children --- adolescents --- KiGGS --- children --- mothers --- vegetable intake --- consumption behaviors --- choice --- preferences --- vitamin --- mineral --- dietary supplements --- adolescents --- EsKiMo --- dietary screener --- obesity prevention --- sweet preference --- children --- diet quality --- dietary behavior --- physical activity --- young populations --- surveillance --- epidemiology --- public health

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977988 9783038977995 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-799-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Abstract

Coeliac Disease (CD) affects at least 1% of the population. “Classical” CD refers to gastrointestinal presentations with anaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms. CD can, however, present with extraintestinal manifestations, the commonest of which are dermatitis herpetiformis and neurological presentations (e.g., ataxia, neuropathy, encephalopathy). Recognition and research into the pathophysiology of such manifestations is likely to enhance our understanding of this complex autoimmune disorder.

Keywords

dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- fracture --- bone health --- quality of life --- Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) --- children and adults --- motor and vocal/phonic tics --- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) --- gluten-free diet --- one-year adherence --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- prevalence --- epidermal transglutaminase --- gluten-free diet --- long-term prognosis --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- gluten-free diet --- small bowel --- villous atrophy --- prognosis --- gluten neuropathy --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- quality of life --- male --- extra-intestinal --- gastrointestinal --- celiac disease --- celiac disease --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- urticaria --- atopic dermatitis --- psoriasis --- recurrent aphtous ulceration --- rosacea --- alopecia areata --- cutaneous vasculitis --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- glandular autoimmunity --- autoimmune thyroid disease --- type 1 diabetes --- polyglandular autoimmune syndrome --- coeliac disease --- osteoporosis --- fractures --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- psychiatric disorders --- depression --- anxiety disorders --- eating disorders --- ADHD --- autism --- psychosis --- autoimmunity --- celiac hepatitis --- gut–liver axis --- liver immunity --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- tolerance --- intestinal barrier --- celiac disease --- extraintestinal --- recognition --- diagnosis --- clinical presentation --- gluten-free diet --- prognosis --- movement disorders --- coeliac disease --- gluten --- gluten free diet --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gliadin --- autoantibody --- B cell --- T cell --- transglutaminase --- synapsin --- ganglioside --- gluten sensitivity --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- molecular mimicry --- intermolecular help --- biomarker --- autoimmune pancreatitis --- coeliac disease --- pancreatic disorders --- screening --- Gluten ataxia --- antigliadin antibodies --- coeliac disease --- MR spectroscopy --- gluten sensitive enteropathy --- antigliadin antibody titre --- gluten sensitivity --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- migraine --- headache --- fatigue --- energy --- celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- gluten --- latent celiac disease --- potential celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- mild enteropathy --- early developing celiac disease --- genetic gluten intolerance --- natural history --- celiac trait --- celiac disease --- gluten neuropathy --- gluten ataxia --- prevalence --- incidence --- gluten-free diet

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