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Environmental Fate of Emerging Organic Micro-Contaminants

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ISBN: 9783039213672 9783039213689 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-368-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The toxicity and fate of pharmaceuticals and other emerging micro-organic contaminants in the natural and built environments have been the focus of much research over the last twenty years. Particular focus has recently centred on the fate of antimicrobial chemicals, including antibiotics and antifungals. The occurrence of such chemicals in the environment is thought to contribute to the selection of resistance in exposed microorganisms.This Special Issue (SI) brings together a broad range of recent advances in the field of emerging micro-organic contaminants, ranging from medicinal contaminants to industrial chemicals in the environment. Notably, these range from chemical extraction and large-scale analysis to adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms and potential risk to humans via contaminated foodstuffs. Additionally, this Special Issue also presents novel contaminant treatment/degradation methods of both physical and biological nature.

Plasma based Synthesis and Modification of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039213955 / 9783039213962 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-396-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book, entitled “Plasma-Based Synthesis and Modification of Nanomaterials” is a collection of nine original research articles devoted to the application of different atmospheric pressure (APPs) and low-pressure (LPPs) plasmas for the synthesis or modification of various nanomaterials (NMs) of exceptional properties. These articles also show the structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized NMs and their further interesting and unique applications in different areas of science and technology. The readers interested in the capabilities of plasma-based treatments will quickly be convinced that APPs and LPPs enable one to efficiently synthesize or modify differentiated NMs using a minimal number of operations. Indeed, the presented procedures are eco-friendly and usually involve single-step processes, thus considerably lowering labor investment and costs. As a result, the production of new NMs and their functionalization is more straightforward and can be carried out on a much larger scale compared to other methods and procedures involving complex chemical treatments and processes. The size and morphology, as well as the structural and optical properties of the resulting NMs are tunable and tailorable. In addition to the desirable and reproducible physical dimensions, crystallinity, functionality, and spectral properties of the resultant NMs, the NMs fabricated and/or modified with the aid of APPs are commonly ready-to-use prior to their specific applications, without any initial pre-treatments.

Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse

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ISBN: 9783038970316 9783038970323 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-032-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse that was published in Water

Keywords

guidelines --- contaminated sites --- risk assessment --- China --- ferrous iron --- ferrous sulfide --- hydrogen sulfide --- odor control --- pumping mains --- sewerage --- pharmaceuticals --- micropollutant removal --- tezontle --- filter media --- active sites --- trickling filter --- anaerobic digester --- swine wastewater --- organic matter --- COD --- decomposition analysis --- global patent data --- research and development strategy --- water treatment technology --- anammox bacteria --- wastewater treatment --- nitrification --- denitrification --- zeolite --- combined sewer --- wastewater treatment --- microbiological quality --- surface water --- river --- lignin --- delignification --- pulp-and-paper-mill c --- wastewater --- white rot fungi --- B. adusta --- P. crysosporium --- foreign countries --- agricultural occupations --- water --- environmental education --- surveys --- sustainability --- milk production --- water --- footprint --- water recycling --- conservation --- partitioning --- efficiency --- forest waste --- palm mulch --- constructed wetlands --- vertical flow --- water treatment --- passive treatment systems --- anaerobic processes --- constructed wetlands --- ornamental plants --- treated wastewater reuse --- advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) --- activated carbon adsorption --- carbamazepine toxicity --- conventional treatment processes --- membrane technology --- occurrence --- food industry --- anticorrosive agent --- benzotriazole --- emerging contaminant --- oxygen injection --- Pb(II) --- nano illite/smectite clay --- adsorption kinetics --- adsorption thermodynamic

Cleaner Combustion

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ISBN: 9783039214778 9783039214785 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-478-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

This volume provides unique views of combustion from many technical and international research perspectives.

Element-Doped Functional Carbon-based Materials

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ISBN: 9783039282241 9783039282258 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-225-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Carbon materials are one of the most fascinating materials because of their unique properties and potential use in several applications. They can be obtained from residues or by using advanced synthesis technologies like chemical vapor deposition. The carbon family is very broad, ranging from classical activated carbons to more advanced species such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. The surface chemistry is one of the most interesting aspects of this broad family of materials, which allows the incorporation of different types of chemical functionalities or heteroatoms on the carbon surface, such as O, N, B, S, or P, which can modify the acid–base character, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, or the electronic properties of these materials and, thus, determine the final application. This book represents a collection of original research articles and communications focused on the synthesis, properties, and applications of heteroatom-doped functional carbon materials.

Biochar as Soil Amendment: Impact on Soil Properties and Sustainable Resource Management

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ISBN: 9783039282746 9783039282753 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-275-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The role of biochar in improving soil fertility is increasingly being recognized and is leading to recommendations of biochar amendment of degraded soils. In addition, biochars offer a sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added-value products. The benefits of biochar use in agriculture and forestry can span enhanced plant productivity, an increase in soil C stocks, and a reduction of nutrient losses from soil and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, biochar composition and properties and, therefore, its performance as a soil amendment are highly dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. In addition, due to its characteristics, such as high porosity, water retention, and adsorption capacity, there are other applications for biochar that still need to be properly tested. Thus, the 16 original articles contained in this book, which were selected and evaluated for this Special Issue, provide a comprehensive overview of the biological, chemicophysical, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the application of biochar as soil amendment. Specifically, they address the applicability of biochar for nursery growth, its effects on the productivity of various food crops under contrasting conditions, biochar capacity for pesticide retention, assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and soil carbon dynamics. I would like to thank the contributors, reviewers, and the support of the Agronomy editorial staff, whose professionalism and dedication have made this issue possible.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

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ISBN: 9783039216628 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

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ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

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