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Neuroactive metabolites of ethanol: a behavioral and neurochemical synopsis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193752 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-375-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Ethanol is a very elusive drug, which has mechanisms of action that are diverse and relatively non-selective. Moreover, ethanol has been demonstrated to be a biologically active substance by itself, but also a pro-drug of the neuroactive metabolites, acetaldehyde and acetate. Acetaldehyde has traditionally been known as a toxic substance with several effects on multiple systems. However, in the last few decades evidence has accumulated to reveal the specific and, in some instances, distinct neural actions of acetaldehyde and acetate that are in part responsible for some of the observed psychoactive effects of ethanol. The present issue will address these challenges to provide an up-to-date synopsis of the behavioral and neurophysiological impact of the two direct metabolites of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate. In doing so, this issue will present human and rodent evidence on their behavioral and neurophysiological impact, either when administered alone as drugs, or when metabolically-derived from their parent compound. Emphasis will be placed to stress the importance of the different enzymatic systems that intervene to produce these metabolites, either peripherally and/or directly in the brain. Similarly, this Research Topic will be aimed at addressing some of the possible mechanisms of action of acetaldehyde and acetate in different brain areas and in different intracellular systems. Furthermore, the issue will lay out some of the suggested mechanisms of action of ethanol and of its metabolites by which they form adducts with other molecules and neurotransmitters such as dopamine and opioids (which lead to salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, respectively), and their impact on the synthesis and actions of neuromodulators such as adenosine and the cannabinoid system.

Keywords

Ethanol --- Catalase --- acetate --- Dopamine --- Salsolinol --- Opioids --- Addiction --- Drug abuse

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215355 9783039215348 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-534-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

Electrospun and Electrosprayed Formulations for Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038979128 9783038979135 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-913-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This book is comprised of important reviews and cutting-edge original research papers concerning electrospun and electrosprayed formulations in drug delivery. Electrospinning and electrospraying have, in recent years, attracted increasing attention in the pharmaceutical sector, with research in the area advancing rapidly. It is now possible to prepare extremely complex systems using multi-fluid processes, and to increase production rates to an industrial scale. Electrospun formulations can be produced under GMP conditions and are in clinical trials. In this volume, we explore a range of topics around electrospinning and electrospraying in controlled drug delivery. Four reviews cover the exciting potential of cyclodextrin-containing fibers and the many potential biomedical applications of electrospun fibers. The use of electrospinning to prepare amorphous systems and improve the dissolution rate and solubility of poorly soluble active ingredients is addressed, and the possibilities of such materials in tissue engineering are comprehensively covered. The six original research papers cover the effect of molecular properties on API release from Eudragit-based electrospun fibers; ferulic acid solid dispersions; electrospun medicines to treat psoriasis; scale up of electrospinning and its use to produce low-dose tablets; transepithelial permeation of drugs released from electrospun fibers, and the possibilities for the synergistic chemophotothermal treatment of cancer.

Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species

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ISBN: 9783039215584 9783039215591 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-559-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool. In 1 year this SI has globally more than 15kdownloads and produced more than 30 citations.

Keywords

Lachancea thermotolerans --- Kluyveromyces thermotolerans --- acidification --- wines --- sequential fermentations --- non-Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Wickerhamomyces anomalus --- Pichia anomala --- enzymes --- glycosidases --- acetate esters --- biocontrol --- mixed starters --- wine --- wine --- Zygosaccharomyces rouxii --- re-fermentation --- spoilage-control --- non-Saccharomyces --- high-ethanol --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- oenological uses --- maloalcoholic fermentation --- stable pigments --- wine safety --- non-Saccharomyces yeast --- Saccharomycodes ludwigii --- S. ludwigii --- spoilage yeasts’ control --- ageing-on-lees --- non-Saccharomyces --- yeast --- sparkling wine --- nitrogen --- aroma --- Candida stellata --- ecology --- taxonomy --- metabolism --- processing foods --- co-fermentation --- non-Saccharomyces --- genome --- aroma compounds --- anthocyanin --- mixed cultures fermentation --- flavor complexity --- Aureobasidium pullulans --- biotechnological applications --- viticulture --- enzymes --- non-Saccharomyces yeasts --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- winemaking --- yeast inoculation --- yeast dominance --- wine quality --- genetic improvement --- antimicrobial peptides --- biocontrol --- Brettanomyces bruxellensis --- Candida intermedia --- wine --- off-flavors --- wine acidity --- volatile acidity --- malolactic bacteria --- Lactobacillus plantarum --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Candida stellate --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Zygotorulaspora florentina --- Pichia kudriavzevii --- Stermerella bacillaris --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- oenological uses --- enzymes --- stable pigments --- pulcherrimin --- n/a --- n/a

Recent Advances in Biocatalysis and Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039215744 9783039215751 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-575-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The use of biocatalysts, including enzymes and metabolically engineered cells, has attracted a great deal of attention in the chemical and bio-industry, because biocatalytic reactions can be conducted under environmentally-benign conditions and in more sustainable ways. The catalytic efficiency and chemo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivity of enzymes can be enhanced and modulated using protein engineering. Metabolic engineering seeks to enhance cellular biosynthetic productivity of target metabolites via controlling and redesigning metabolic pathways using multi-omics analysis, genome-scale modeling, metabolic flux control, and reconstruction of novel pathways. The aim of this book is to cover the recent advances in biocatalysis and metabolic engineering for biomanufacturing of biofuels, chemicals, biomaterials, and pharmaceuticals. Reviews and original research articles on the development of new strategies to improve the catalytic efficiency of enzymes, biosynthetic capability of cell factories, and their applications in production of various bioproducts and chemicals are included.

Keywords

artificial self-sufficient P450 --- bioplastics --- dodecanoic acid --- Nylon 12 --- ?-aminododecanoic acid --- immobilization --- fluorescein diacetate --- polyurethane foam --- biofilm --- total enzymatic activity --- biocatalysis --- Combi-CLEAs --- cascade reactions --- immobilization --- Myceliophthora --- glyoxal oxidase --- 5-hydroxymethylfurfural --- aerobic methane bioconversion --- bioreactor --- string film reactor --- mass transfer performance --- cross-linked enzyme aggregate --- amyloglucosidase --- magnetic nanoparticles --- bovine serum albumin --- polyethyleneimine --- starch hydrolysis --- Eversa --- interfacial activation --- lipase immobilization --- enzyme stabilization --- enzyme modulation --- metabolic engineering --- synthetic biology --- 3-hydroxypropionic acid --- microbial production --- fatty acid synthesis --- acetate --- redox enzymes --- FTIR spectroscopy --- small molecules --- Corynebacterium glutamicum --- Pvgb --- tunable expression system --- expression vectors --- synthetic biology --- Vitreoscilla --- vgb --- biocatalysts --- biocatalytic reaction --- Methylosinus sporium strain 5 --- soluble methane monooxygenase --- C–H activation --- O2 activation --- synthetic biology --- metabolic engineering --- microbial cell factory --- synthetic metabolic pathways --- mannose --- magnetic nanoparticles --- immobilization --- whole cell --- specific recognition --- 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid --- dodecanoic acid --- CYP153A --- whole-cell biotransformation --- Candida antarctica Lipase B --- transesterification --- polymer functionalization --- tetraethylene glycol --- poly(ethylene glycol) --- hydrogenase --- bio-hydrogen --- chemicals addition --- review --- (?)-?-bisabolol --- mevalonate (MVA) --- mevalonate kinase 1 --- Methanosarcina mazei --- fed-batch fermentation --- monoterpene --- prokaryotic microbial factory --- metabolic engineering --- MEP pathway --- MEV pathway --- n/a

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039218806 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039284542 9783039284559 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-455-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The Special Issue “Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films” highlights the recent progress in thin film synthesis/modification and characterization. New methods are reviewed for the synthesis and/or modification of thin films based on laser, magnetron, chemical, and other techniques. The obtained thin nanostructures are characterized by complex and complementary techniques. We think that most of proposed methods can be directly applied in production, but some others still need further elaboration for long-term prospective applications in lasers, optics, materials, electronics, informatics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, and probably many other domains. The Guest Editor and the MDPI staff are therefore pleased to offer this Special Issue to interested readers, including graduate and PhD students as well as postdoctoral researchers, but also to the entire community interested in the field of nanomaterials. We share the conviction that this can serve as a useful tool for updating the literature, but also to aid in the conception of new production and/or research programs. There is plenty of room for further dedicated R&D advances based on new instruments and materials under development.

Keywords

AlGaN --- nanopatterned sapphire substrate --- hydride vapor phase epitaxy --- stress --- transmission electron microscopy --- copper nanowires --- CuNWs --- degradation --- encapsulation --- PDMS --- PMMA --- solution-based --- transparent electrode --- photonic crystal fiber --- demultiplexer --- dense wavelength division multiplexing --- lithium niobate --- waveguide --- photonic integrated circuit --- propagation loss --- optical lithography --- chemo-mechanical polishing --- gold thin film --- nonlinear absorption --- nonlinear refraction --- transient absorption --- nanoparticles --- high-order harmonics --- electroluminescence --- nanolaminate --- Al2O3 --- Tm2O3 --- atomic layer deposition --- germanium --- DLC --- doped biomaterials --- pulsed laser deposition --- reactive oxygen species --- apoptosis --- cytotoxicity --- titanium film --- interlayer --- cohesion --- residual stress --- nano-indenter --- nanocrystal --- CdTe --- Cu-doped --- ZnTe --- solar cells --- solution processed --- pulsed laser deposition --- chalcogenide thin films --- Raman spectroscopy --- spectroscopic ellipsometry --- noble metal nanoparticles --- pulsed laser ablation --- surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy --- antiepileptic drugs --- Zn2+ substituted Coll-CaPs biomimetic layers --- MAPLE --- spin coating --- dye-sensitized solar cells --- photovoltaic conversion efficiency --- TiO2 thin films --- pulsed laser deposition --- DLC bio-functionality --- silicon doping --- diffusion barrier --- biocompatibility --- proliferation improvement --- endothelial cells --- ZnO nanofilms --- SHG --- Ga doping --- polarization angle --- Cu2MgxZn1?xSnS4 --- thin films --- photoelectric performance --- sol–gel --- sulfuration treatment --- solar cell --- nanomaterial --- zinc oxide --- barium titanate --- composite --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- elastic modulus --- toughness --- flexural rigidity --- radiopacity --- piezoelectricity --- laser surface texturing --- laser-induced periodic surface structures --- LIPSS --- silicon --- PTFE --- friction --- n/a

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