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Selected Papers from the 1st International Online Conference on Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039285341 9783039285358 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-535-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book compiles selected papers from the Proceedings of the 1st International Online Conference on Nanomaterials, held 1–15 September, 2018 on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups. It targets a broad readership of physicists, chemists, materials scientists, biologists, environmentalists, and nanotechnologists, and provides interesting examples of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of nanomaterials.

Mineral Fibres

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ISBN: 9783039211449 9783039211456 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-145-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) and asbestos containing materials (ACMs) as a source of possible environmental risk. A crucial theme of interest related to environmental pollution is the enhanced mobilization of asbestos minerals affecting soils and rocks due to human activities (e.g., road construction, mining activity) in comparison with natural weathering processes. The volume has aimed to gather contributions and to compare results derived from various experiences of research groups regarding NOA minerals as a source of possible environmental risks for population. Case studies from various geological contexts are presented. Moreover, contributions presenting novel and classical approaches for ACM inertization and recycling, together with possible solutions for reducing asbestos exposure, has been also presented.

Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Energy Performance Assessment

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ISBN: 9783039219261 9783039219278 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-927-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The building industry is influenced by many factors and trends reflecting the current situation and developments in social, economic, technical, and scientific fields. One of the most important trends seeks to minimize the energy demand. This can be achieved by promoting the construction of buildings with better thermal insulating capabilities of their envelopes and better efficiency in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Any credible assessment of building energy performance includes the identification and simulation of heat and mass transfer phenomena in both the building envelope and the interior of the building. As the interaction between design elements, climate change, user behavior, heating effectiveness, ventilation, air conditioning systems, and lighting is not straightforward, the assessment procedure can present a complex and challenging task. The simulations should then involve all factors affecting the energy performance of the building in questions. However, the appropriate choice of physical model of heat and mass transfer for different building elements is not the only factor affecting the output of building energy simulations. The accuracy of the material parameters applied in the models as input data is another potential source of uncertainty. For instance, neglecting the dependence of hygric and thermal parameters on moisture content may affect the energy assessment in a significant way. Boundary conditions in the form of weather data sets represent yet another crucial factor determining the uncertainty of the outputs. In light of recent trends in climate change, this topic is vitally important. This Special Issue aims at providing recent developments in laboratory analyses, computational modeling, and in situ measurements related to the assessment of building energy performance based on the proper identification of heat and mass transfer processes in building structures.

Crystal Growth of Multifunctional Borates and Related Materials

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ISBN: 9783038978381 9783038978398 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-839-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Borate crystals are attractive for different technological applications because of their favorable physical and chemical properties like stability and high transparency, both high thermal and non-linear optical coefficients, making them ideal active media for highly efficient solid state lasers. In this Special Issue, different aspects of multifunctional borate crystals are discussed, including ortho- and oxyorthoborates and compounds with condensed anions, as well as their nonlinear optical and laser properties and piezoelectric characteristics. For this reason, complex investigations of the phase relationships in multi-component borate melts, the study of crystal growth conditions of novel high-temperature borates, and the development of the &ldquo;crystallization conditions, composition, structure, and properties&rdquo; concept will provide a scientific basis for growth technologies of high performance electronic and optical devices and components with a variety of industrial, medical and many other applications. In the meantime, these relationships can help to estimate the affinity of synthetic borate materials with their natural prototypes and structural analogues.

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

Recent Advances in GPR Imaging

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ISBN: 9783039218103 9783039218110 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-811-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Geophysics and Geomagnetism
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The Special Issue (SI) “Recent Advances in GPR Imaging” offers an up-to-date overview of state-of-the-art research activities dealing with the development of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology and its recent advances in imaging in the different fields of application. In fact, the advances experimented with over the last few decades with regard to the appearance of new GPR systems and the need to manage large amounts of data suggest an increasing interest in the development of new signal processing algorithms and modeling, as well as in the use of three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques.

Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources

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ISBN: 9783039288755 / 9783039288762 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-876-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This multidisciplinary book covers a wide range of topics addressing critical challenges for advancing the understanding and management of shale oil and shale gas resources. Both fundamental and practical issues are considered. By covering a variety of technical topics, we aim to contribute to building a more integrated perspective to meet major challenges faced by shale resources. Combining complementary techniques and examining multiple sources of data serve to advance our current knowledge about these unconventional reservoirs. The book is a result of interdisciplinary and collaborative work. The content includes contributions authored by active scientists with ample expertise in their fields. Each article was carefully peer-reviewed by researchers, and the editorial process was performed by an experienced team of Senior Editors, Guest Editors, Topic Editors, and Editorial Board Members. The first part is devoted to fundamental topics, mostly investigated on the laboratory scale. The second part elaborates on larger scales (at near-wellbore and field scales). Finally, two related technologies, which could be relevant for shale plays applications, are presented. With this Special Issue, we provide a channel for sharing information and lessons learned collected from different plays and from different disciplines.

Advances in Chitin/Chitosan Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978022 9783038978039 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-803-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed&mdash;typically under mild conditions&mdash;into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption&mdash;to name but a few&mdash;chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Keywords

aerogels --- chitosan --- ionic liquids --- ionogels --- zinc–chitosan complexes --- characterization --- bio-sorbent --- phosphate --- adsorption --- mechanism --- thermodynamic --- chitosan --- hydrogel --- phase transition --- gelation mechanism --- chitosan --- defense responses --- fruits --- nanoparticles --- plant growth --- pesticides --- Boron --- chitosan --- iron(III) hydroxide --- neodymium --- sorption --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitosan derivative --- chitin derivative --- oral care --- skin care --- hear care --- marine resources --- over-the counter-drug --- polymer carrier --- chitin --- chitosan --- nanostructured biomaterial --- polymer --- self-masking nanosphere lithography --- cicada --- chitosan --- self-assembled --- polyelectrolyte complex --- nanoparticle --- drug delivery --- Citrobacter --- biosynthesis --- bioflocculant --- chitosan --- metabolic pathway --- PEO/chitosan blend --- swelling --- mechanical properties --- wet and dried states --- chitosan --- biological activity --- medical applications --- chitosan --- PCL --- strontium --- scaffolds --- craniofacial engineering --- chitin --- chitosan --- derivatization --- controlled functionalization --- click chemistry --- graft copolymer --- cyclodextrin --- dendrimer --- ionic liquids --- chitin deacetylases --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- carbohydrate esterases --- structure --- substrate specificity --- deacetylation pattern --- binary --- chitosan --- desorption --- iron --- lead --- mercury --- salt effects --- single --- sorption competition --- chitosan supported copper --- heterogeneous catalyst --- organosilicon compound --- easily recyclable --- chitosan --- papermaking --- wet-end --- coating --- wastewater --- ionic cross-linking --- eco-friendly formulations --- thermal transition sol-gel --- drug delivery systems --- MTDSC --- DSC --- gene delivery --- non-viral vectors --- chitosan structure --- pDNA --- siRNA --- TEOS --- methylene blue --- chitosan --- modelling --- cross-linking --- interpenetrating --- XRD --- FTIR

Advancements in Gel Science—A Special Issue in Memory of Toyoichi Tanaka

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ISBN: 9783039213436 9783039213443 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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A gel is a state of matter that consists of a three-dimensional cross-linked polymer network and a large amount of solvent. Because of their structural characteristics, gels play important roles in science and technology. The science of gels has attracted much attention since the discovery of the volume phase transition by Professor Toyoichi Tanala at MIT in 1978. MDPI planned to publish a Special Issue in Gels to celebrate the 40th anniversary of this discovery, which received submissions of 13 original papers and one review from various areas of science. We believe that readers will find this Special Issue informative as to the recent advancements of gel research and the broad background of gel science.

Keywords

gel --- thermoresponsive property --- monomer sequence --- co-crosslinking --- copolymerization --- acrylamide derivative --- swelling --- volume phase transition --- agarose gel --- compression --- solvent transport --- sucrose --- xylitol --- volume phase transition --- effects of electric charge --- swelling of thermosensitive gels --- sol-gel transition --- site-bond correlated-percolation model for polymer gelation --- gelation temperature --- cloud point temperature --- spinodal temperature --- spinodal decomposition --- janus particle --- anisotropic shape --- phase separation --- wetting --- micrometric confinement --- micropipette aspiration --- PVA gel --- gamma ray sterilization --- artificial hydrogel cartilage --- frictional property --- wear --- xerogel --- Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory --- Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis --- temperature --- solids content --- drying --- solvent exchange --- microgel --- electrophoresis --- light scattering --- paint coating --- wrinkle --- swelling --- buckling --- Sephadex® (crosslinked dextran) --- crosslink density (density of crosslinks) --- ice grain --- ice crystallization during rewarming --- glassy water --- X-ray CT --- XRD --- poly(vinyl alcohol) --- chemical gel --- microcrystallite --- hydrogen bond --- swelling behavior --- hysteresis --- hydrogel --- friction --- fatigue --- wear --- fracture --- crack --- adhesion --- delamination --- poly (acryl amide) gel --- time domain reflectometry (TDR) of dielectric spectroscopy --- pulse field gradient spin echo method of nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) --- scaling analysis --- fractal analysis --- heterogeneous gelation dynamics --- moving boundary picture --- phase transition dynamics --- kinetic coefficient --- blood coagulation --- n/a

Micro/Nano Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039211692 9783039211708 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-170-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Micro manufacturing involves dealing with the fabrication of structures in the size range of 0.1 to 1000 µm. The scope of nano manufacturing extends the size range of manufactured features to even smaller length scales—below 100 nm. A strict borderline between micro and nano manufacturing can hardly be drawn, such that both domains are treated as complementary and mutually beneficial within a closely interconnected scientific community. Both micro and nano manufacturing can be considered as important enablers for high-end products. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences is dedicated to recent advances in research and development within the field of micro and nano manufacturing. The included papers report recent findings and advances in manufacturing technologies for producing products with micro and nano scale features and structures as well as applications underpinned by the advances in these technologies.

Keywords

fluid jet polishing --- deterministic polishing --- variable pitch path --- residual error optimization --- path adaptability --- chatter identification --- three-dimensional elliptical vibration cutting --- empirical mode decomposition --- intrinsic mode function --- feature extraction --- micro-EDM molds --- micro-lens array --- contactless embossing --- friction coefficient --- micro 3D printing --- micro stereolithography --- process parameter optimization --- Taguchi’s method --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- flow control --- culture dish adapter --- small recess structure --- closed environment --- perfusion culture --- optical encoder --- grating --- blaze --- injection molding --- micro assembly --- active alignment --- opto-ASIC --- wafer-level optics --- antireflection nanostructure --- microlens array mold --- ultraprecision machining --- anodic aluminum oxide --- spatial uncertainty modeling --- additive manufacturing --- uncertainty quantification --- Image segmentation --- gaussian process modeling --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- surface roughness --- design of experiments --- Ti6Al4V --- SERS --- Surface-enhanced Raman scattering --- nanosphere array --- nanocone array --- hot embossing --- nanoimprinting --- plasma nitriding --- micro-nozzle --- micro-spring --- nitrogen supersaturation --- hardening --- hydrophobicity --- stiffness control --- product development --- conceptual design --- micro assembly --- data structure --- design for manufacturability --- low PC clinker --- Portland limestone ternary fiber–cement nanohybrids --- flexural strength --- TGA/dTG --- XRD --- MIP --- water impermeability tests --- micro and nano manufacturing --- micro-fluidics --- micro-optics --- micro and nano additive manufacturing --- micro-assembly --- surface engineering and interface nanotechnology --- micro factories --- micro reactors --- micro sensors --- micro actuators

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