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Complex Lexical Units. Compounds and Multi-Word Expressions

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Book Series: Konvergenz und Divergenz ISBN: 9783110632446 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: 363 DOI: 10.1515/9783110632446 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-19 16:52:49
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The volume explores compounds and multi-word expressions and their interrelation regarding their status in lexicon and grammar in a variety of European languages, including a contrastive overview with a focus on German. It brings together insights from word-formation theory, phraseology and theory of grammar and aims to contribute to the understanding of the lexicon, both from a language-specific and cross-linguistic perspective.

At the doors of lexical access: The importance of the first 250 milliseconds in reading

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192601 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-260-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Correct word identification and processing is a prerequisite for accurate reading, and decades of psycholinguistic and neuroscientific research have shown that the magical moments of visual word recognition are short-lived and markedly fast. The time window in which a given letter string passes from being a mere sequence of printed curves and strokes to acquiring the word status takes around one third of a second. In a few hundred milliseconds, a skilled reader recognizes an isolated word and carries out a number of underlying processes, such as the encoding of letter position and letter identity, and lexico-semantic information retrieval. However, the precise manner (and order) in which these processes occur (or co-occur) is a matter of contention subject to empirical research. There's no agreement regarding the precise timing of some of the essential processes that guide visual word processing, such as precise letter identification, letter position assignment or sub-word unit processing (bigrams, trigrams, syllables, morphemes), among others. Which is the sequence of processes that lead to lexical access? How do these and other processes interact with each other during the early moments of word processing? Do these processes occur in a serial fashion or do they take place in parallel? Are these processes subject to mutual interaction principles? Is feedback allowed for within the earliest stages of word identification? And ultimately, when does the reader's brain effectively identify a given word? A vast number of questions remain open, and this Research Topic will cover some of them, giving the readership the opportunity to understand how the scientific community faces the problem of modeling the early stages of word identification according to the latest neuroscientific findings.

Variation und Wandel. Zur Konkurrenz morphologischer und syntaktischer A+N-Verbindungen im Deutschen und Niederländischen seit 1700

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Book Series: Konvergenz und Divergenz. Sprachvergleichende Studien zum Deutschen ISBN: 9783110423136 9783110423211 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: xviii, 300 DOI: 10.1515/9783110423136 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-25 16:56:15
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The volume covers the development of concurrence in morphological and syntactic A+N naming units such as Gelbfieber (yellow fever) and schwarzer Markt (black market) in German and Dutch since 1700. Using historical case studies, it examines the development of such combinations in view of the principles of construction grammar. In addition, the study also explores potential factors that have fostered divergence between the two languages.

Manuel pratique du traduire : Lire - Écrire - Traduire

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ISBN: 9782858313303 DOI: 10.4000/books.pressesinalco.32206 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Inalco
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:40
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« Pratique du traduire » est le titre d’un séminaire qui fait suite aux séminaires « Théorie » et « Critique du Traduire ». La distinction radicale entre les trois est évidemment partiellement factice, mais il fallait à la fois nommer chacun de ces séminaires et souligner une sorte de progression (souhaitée et souhaitable) dans l’apprentissage du métier de traducteur­-traduisant, une fois admis que ce métier exigeait une formation : d’abord se familiariser avec la problématique (on ne traduit pas une langue, mais une littérature en langue ; la littérature traduite doit conserver en français ses caractéristiques, nous ne sommes pas là pour produire du bon français fluide), ensuite apprendre à lire des textes traduits en tant que textes traduits (ce que ne fait presque jamais la critique), enfin, sur la base de traductions existantes, écrire. Dans tous les cas, et c’est l’aspect le plus déroutant de la méthode pratiquée à l’Inalco et l’École de traduction littéraire du CNL, on travaillera sur diverses langues, indépendamment du savoir des apprenants. Il n’est pas nécessaire de connaître chaque langue pour savoir lire et corriger (modestement) un texte traduit. Il faut et il suffit de le traiter en tant que texte traduit, quels qu’aient été les choix du traducteur, même si son objectif – hélas trop fréquent encore – était de gommer ou d’effacer l’acte de traduire. Ce livre ou manuel, est le résultat d’une posture de traducteurs, c’est­à­dire le résultat des réflexions croisées de traducteurs enseignants d’une part, d’autre part le désir de faire des participants au séminaire, à leur tour, des traduisants. Ces réflexions sur des pratiques (que les champs littéraires embrasses peuvent rendre très hétérogènes) ne nous ont pas conduit à proposer un catalogue de réponses, de trucs et astuces ou une boite à outils. Il s’agit d’une série de questionnements soulevés par la pratique des textes (le traducteur est, avec l’auteur, le seul à connaitre le livre mot à mot), destinés à aiguiser un regard, une attitude. Le futur traducteur sera donc appelé à développer une démarche proche sur la base d’enquêtes collectives. Rien ne serait plus éloigné de notre pensée que d’imaginer en arriver à une solution unique. Mais nous nous refusons tout autant à en inférer que tout est relatif, tout est équivalent, que toutes les solutions se valent. Les solutions acceptables sont celles qu’aura dicté le texte à traduire.

What makes written words so special to the brain

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193790 Year: Pages: 267 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-379-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Reading is an integral part of life in today's information-driven societies. Since the pioneering work of Dejerine on "word blindness" in brain-lesioned patients, the literature has increased exponentially, from neuropsychological case reports to mechanistic accounts of word processing at the behavioural, neurofunctional and computational levels, tapping into diverse aspects of visual word processing. These studies have revealed some exciting findings about visual word processing, including how the brain learns to read, how changes in literacy impact upon word processing strategies, and whether word processing mechanisms vary across different alphabetic, logographic or artificial writing systems. Other studies have attempted to characterise typical and atypical word processes in special populations in order to explain why dyslexic brains struggle with words, how multilingualism changes the way our brains see words, and what the exact developmental signatures are that would shape the acquisition of reading skills. Exciting new insights have also emerged from recent studies that have investigated word stimuli at the system/network level, by looking for instance, at how the reading system interacts with other cognitive systems in a context-dependent fashion, how visual language stimuli are integrated into the speech processing streams, how both left and right hemispheres cooperate and interact during word processing, and what the exact contributions of subcortical and cerebellar regions to reading are. The contributions to this Research Topic highlight the latest findings regarding the different issues mentioned above, particularly how these findings can explain or model the different processes, mechanisms, pathways or cognitive strategies by which the human brain sees words. The introductory editorial, summarising the contributions included here, highlights how varieties of behavioural tests and neuroimaging techniques can be used to investigate word processing mechanisms across different alphabetic and logographic writing systems.

Mouth Actions in Sign Languages. An Empirical Study of Irish Sign Language

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Book Series: Sign Languages and Deaf Communities [SLDC] ISSN: 2192-516X ISBN: 9781614514978 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 249 DOI: 10.1515/9781614514978 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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Mouth actions in sign languages have been controversially discussed but the sociolinguistic factors determining their form and functions remain uncertain. This first empirical analysis of mouth actions in Irish Sign Language focuses on correlations with gender, age, and word class. It contributes to the linguistic description of ISL, research into non-manuals in sign languages, and is relevant for the cross-modal study of word classes.

The Rhaeto-Romance Languages

Authors: ---
Book Series: Romance Linguistics ISBN: 9780203992487 9780415041942 9781138868427 9781134965489 9781134965472 9781134965434 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203992487 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:07
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The Rhaeto-Romance languages have been known as such to the linguistic community since the pioneering studies of Ascoli and Gartner over a century ago. There has never been a community of RR speakers based on a common history or polity and the various dialects are mutually unintelligible, but a unity, based on a number of common features, has been advanced. This book is the first general description of the Rhaeto-Romance languages to be written in Eng. It provides a critical examination of the phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax of the modern Rhaeto-Romance dialects within the broader perspective of Romance comparative linguistics.

Keywords

dialects --- ladin --- northern --- italian --- friulian --- inverted --- word --- order --- 3rd --- plural

Word Knowledge and Word Usage. A Cross-Disciplinary Guide to the Mental Lexicon

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] ISSN: 1861-4302 ISBN: 9783110440577 Year: Volume: 337 Pages: 725 DOI: 10.1515/9783110440577 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-08 10:43:30
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Word storage and processing define a multi-factorial domain of scientific inquiry whose thorough investigation goes well beyond the boundaries of traditional disciplinary taxonomies, to require synergic integration of a wide range of methods, techniques and empirical and experimental findings. The present book intends to approach a few central issues concerning the organization, structure and functioning of the Mental Lexicon, by asking domain experts to look at common, central topics from complementary standpoints, and discuss the advantages of developing converging perspectives. The book will explore the connections between computational and algorithmic models of the mental lexicon, word frequency distributions and information theoretical measures of word families, statistical correlations across psycho-linguistic and cognitive evidence, principles of machine learning and integrative brain models of word storage and processing. Main goal of the book will be to map out the landscape of future research in this area, to foster the development of interdisciplinary curricula and help single-domain specialists understand and address issues and questions as they are raised in other disciplines.

Reading in changing society

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Book Series: Studies in Reading and Book Culture ISBN: 9789949325757 9789949325788 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_496790 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Social Sciences --- History --- Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-07 11:01:07
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The changing state of reading and its fate in the digitalised world is one of the core issues in the contemporary debates about the future of culture. The central position of the printed word, and primarily, books as the most valuable cultural medium and the main source of knowledge, are becoming questioned in the age of the Internet. Reading as gateway to the world of fantasies has been challenged by powerful audiovisual media. Is the pleasure of reading as a creative process involving imagination and self-cognition disappearing, and being replaced by the quick exchange of impressions and images in social media? Are these critical notes and concerns about the future of reading just rapid generalisations and misunderstandings, evoked by the invasion of new technologies in the old and well-established world of books? The articles gathered here represent empirical studies, theoretical and historical reflections on the changes in the world of books and reading in the Baltic and Nordic countries, as well as descriptions of the new library practices that reflect the creative efforts to adapt to the changing social and technological environment.

Thoughts on grammaticalization

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Book Series: Classics in Linguistics ISBN: 9783946234074 9783946234067 9783946234050 Year: Pages: 214+xiii DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_603353 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 14:26:39
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After a short review of the history of research, the work introduces and delimits the concepts related to grammaticalization. It then provides extensive exemplification of grammaticalization phenomena in diverse languages, ordered by grammatical domains such as the verbal, pronominal and nominal sphere and clause level relations. The final chapter presents a theory of grammaticalization which is based on the autonomy of the linguistic sign with respect to the paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes. This is the basis of the structural parameters that constitute grammaticalization. They are operationalized to the point of rendering degrees of grammaticalization measurable.

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