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Christian Converts and Social Protests in Meiji Japan

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Book Series: Michigan Classics in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901937 Year: Pages: 279 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.9340282 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:03:01
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Nowhere has there been a discussion of the confusion necessarily generated by the rapidity of the change or of the agony created in the lives of many whose attitudes, expectations, and even success depended on the continuance of now abolished institutions. Historians have ignored the settled conditions of most samurai and instead concentrated on the study of the minority of activist samurai leaders who, with the backing of only a few Han (feudal domains) sought to overthrow the old order and whose success in doing so has made the study of the modernization of Japan the prime concern of historians. The history of the Meiji period may have been an overall political and industrial success story, but for a fuller understanding of the conditions of that success it is also necessary to understand "what it was really like" for the members of the old elite to be estranged from the proponents of revolution and what many members did to assure their own social and psychological position in a world they had not expected. In this book the author attempts to show that the impact of the Meiji Restoration destroyed the meaningfulness of the Confucian doctrine for these declasse samurai. Through Christianity, the samurai attempted to revive their status in society by finding a doctrine that offered a meaningful path to power. But in doing so, they had to accept a new theory of social relations. Ultimately, as the convert's understanding of society became totally informed by the Christian doctrine, they accepted a transcendent authority that brought them into conflict with society about them. Therefore, to understand the development of a Christian opposition in Meiji society we must begin with the conversion experience itself. [intro]

Transport in Transition

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Book Series: Michigan Abstracts Of Chinese And Japanese Works On Chinese History ISBN: 9780472901562 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.19931 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:12
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Water transport is a major feature of the traditional Chinese economy because of its magnitude and comparative efficiency. Yet this feature has all too often been ignored by scholars, with the notable exception of Japanese scholars. We cannot hope to gain any real conception of how the Chinese economy worked in the past, or works now, until we have a clearer picture of the circulation of men and commodities. In this circulation, water transport has been and is of crucial importance. Transport in Transition collects and translates notable Japanese articles to throw some light on the evolution of traditional junk shipping during a key transitional phase, 1900–1940, when it was absorbing the influences of various forms of modernization and on the eve of its major organizational transformation under the direction of the Communisty Party. The articles chosen concentrate on two main themes: the institutional organization of the shipping business, and the forms of ownership and operation. They will be of value to business historians and economic sociologists generally as well as to economic historians interested in transport. Several features of the Chinese economy are sharply illuminated. Most striking is the extent of regional variation. North and central Chinese shipping are shown to have differed both in their methods of operaiton and organization. Also noteworthy is the enduring strength of some traditional features of shipping operation and business practice. An unexpected feature of this endurance was the strength of traditional shipping in the face of steady competition from all forms of modern transport and from reputdely more efficient forms of business management.

Writing and Renunciation in Medieval Japan

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Book Series: Michigan Monograph Series in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901890 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.18546 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: National Endowment for the Humanities - [grantnumber unknown]
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:01:57
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This is the first monograph-length study in English of Kamo no Chomei, one of the most important literary figures of medieval Japan. Drawing upon a wide range of writings in a variety of genres from the Heian and Kamakura periods, Pandey focuses on the terms kyogen kigo (wild words and fancy phrases), shoji soku nehan (samsara is nirvana), hoben (expedient means), and suki (single-minded devotion to an art). She shows how these terms deployed by writers in an attempt to reconcile literary and artistic activities with a commitment to Buddhism. By locating Chomei within this broad context, the book offers an original reading of his texts, while at the same time casting a light upon intellectual preoccupations that were central to the times. Writing and Renunciation in Medieval Japan is an important contribution to a growing body of work that challenges the rigid distinction between the religious and literary—a distinction that would have made little sense to medieval writers, many of whom were poets as well as priests—and sheds light on the particular ways in which a religio-aesthetic tradition came to be articulated in medieval Japan. Through an examination of records left by Chomei's contemporaries, the book also traces the life of Chomei, particularly his activities as a court poet and the circumstances that led to his taking the tonsure.

Essays on the Modern Japanese Church

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Book Series: Michigan Monograph Series in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901913 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.22854 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:03
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Essays on the Modern Japanese Church (Gendai Nihon kyokai shiron), published in 1906, was the first Japanese-language history of Christianity in Meiji Japan. Yamaji Aizan’s firsthand account describes the reintroduction of Christianity to Japan—its development, rapid expansion, and decline—and its place in the social, political, and intellectual life of the Meiji period. Yamaji’s overall argument is that Christianity played a crucial role in shaping the growth and development of modern Japan. Yamaji was a strong opponent of the government-sponsored “emperor-system ideology,” and through his historical writing he tried to show how Japan had a tradition of tolerance and openness at a time when government-sponsored intellectuals were arguing for greater conformity and submissiveness to the state on the basis of Japanese “national character.” Essays is important not only in terms of religious history but also because it highlights broad trends in the history of Meiji Japan. Introductory chapters explore the significance of the work in terms of the life and thought of its author and its influence on subsequent interpretations of Meiji Christianity.

The Imperial Style of Inquiry in Twentieth-Century China

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Book Series: Michigan Monographs In Chinese Studies ISBN: 9780472901784 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.19105 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: National Endowment for the Humanities - [grantnumber unknown]
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:06
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How have traditional Chinese ways of thinking affected problem solving in this century? The traditional, imperial style of inquiry is associated with the belief that the universe is a coherent, internally structured unity understandable through the similarly structured human mind. It involves a reliance on antecedent and authoritarian models, coupled with an introspective focus in investigations, at some cost to objective fact gathering. In contrast, emergent forms of inquiry are guided by the values of individual autonomy and new perspectives on objectivity. In the 1930s and 1940s, some liberal educators held the model of Western science in great esteem, and some scientists practicing objective inquiry helped to create an awareness in the urban areas of inquiry not directed by political values. Drawing on philosophical, social science, and popular culture materials, Donald Munro shows that the two strains coexisted in twentieth century China as mixed motives. Many important figures were motivated by a desire to act consistently with the social values associated with the premodern or received view of knowledge and inquiry. At the same time, these people often had other motives, such as utilitarian values, efficiency, and entrepreneurship. Munro argues that while many competing positions can coexist in the same person, the seeds of the positive, instrumental value of individual autonomy in Chinese inquiry are beginning to compete in both scholarly and popular culture with other, older approaches.

China’s Revolutions and Intergenerational Relations

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Book Series: Michigan Monographs In Chinese Studies ISBN: 9780472901500 Year: Pages: 351 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.19840 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: National Endowment for the Humanities - [grantnumber unknown]
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:37
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China’s Revolutions and Intergenerational Relations counters the widely accepted notion that traditional family patterns are weakened by forces such as economic development and social revolutions. China has experienced wrenching changes on both the economic and the political fronts, yet from the evidence presented here the tradition of filial respect and support for aging parents remains alive and well. Using collaborative surveys carried out in 1994 in the middle-sized industrial city of Baoding and comparative data from urban Taiwan, the authors examine issues shaping the relationships between adult Chinese children and their elderly parents. The continued vitality of intergenerational support and filial obligations in these samples is not simply an instance of strong Confucian tradition trumping powerful forces of change. Instead, and somewhat paradoxically, the continued strength of filial obligations can be attributed largely to the institutions of Chinese socialism forged in the era of Mao Zedong. With socialist institutions now under assault in the People’s Republic of China, the future of intergenerational relations in the twenty-first century is once again uncertain.

Collective Decision Making in Rural Japan

Book Series: Michigan Papers in Japanese Studies ISBN: 9780472901999 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.18687 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: National Endowment for the Humanities - [grantnumber unknown]
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:40
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Society and social sciences;Sociology;Veterinary medicine: infectious diseases and therapeutics

Nourish the People

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Book Series: Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies ISBN: 9780472901821 Year: Pages: 634 DOI: 10.3998/mpub.19044 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-05 00:02:49
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The Qing state, driven by Confucian precepts of good government and urgent practical needs, committed vast resources to its granaries. Nourish the People traces the basic practices of this system, analyzes the organizational bases of its successes and failures, and examines variant practices in different regions. The volume concludes with an assessment of the granary system’s social and economic impact and historical comparison with the food supply policies of other states.

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