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On the Origin and Function of Human NK-like CD8+ T Cells: Charting New Territories

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453962 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-396-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

Human CD8+ T cells expressing NK receptors and receptors found on innate immune cells, and designated as NK-like or innate CD8+ T cells, have been long considered as terminally differentiated lymphocytes responsible for tissue inflammation and destruction. However, a growing body of knowledge is unveiling that NK-like CD8+ T cells have many, sometimes contrasting, functions. The limited knowledge of the biology of this type of CD8+ T cells and the role they play within peripheral tissues and organs under homeostatic conditions has hampered our understanding of disease and therefore the possible development of disease diagnostic tools and effective immunotherapies. In this Research Topic are presented a variety of topics and views, some of them overlooked for many years, on human NK-like CD8+ T cells, which may open new and novel avenues of research to further our understanding of these polyfunctional T cells.

The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair: A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454105 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-410-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Biology --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Tissues and organs have, although sometimes limited, the capacity for endogenous repair, which is aimed to re-establish integrity and homeostasis. Tissue repair involves pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, new tissue formation and remodelling. Depending on the local microenvironment, tissue repair results either in scar tissue formation or in regeneration. The latter aims to recapitulate the original tissue structure and architecture with the proper functionality. Although some organisms (such as planarians) have a high regenerative capacity throughout the body, in humans this property is more restricted to a few organs and tissues. Regeneration in the adult is possible in particular through the existence of tissue-resident pools of stem/progenitor cells. In response to tissue damage, these cells are activated, they proliferate and migrate, and differentiate into mature cells. Angiogenesis and neovascularization play a crucial role in tissue repair. Besides providing with oxygen and nutrients, angiogenesis generates a vascular niche (VN) consisting of different blood-derived elements and endothelial cells surrounded by basement membrane as well as perivascular cells. The newly generated VN communicates with the local stem/progenitor cells and contributes to tissue repair. For example, platelets, macrophages, neutrophils, perivascular cells and other VN components actively participate in the repair of skin, bone, muscle, tendon, brain, spinal cord, etc. Despite these observations, the exact role of the VN in tissue repair and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and are awaiting further evidence that, indeed, will be required for the development of regenerative therapies for the treatment of traumatic injuries as well as degenerative diseases.

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