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DNA helicases: expression, functions and clinical implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195756 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-575-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-30 16:33:44
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Helicases are the proteins that bind to double- or single-stranded DNA and/or RNA chains to unwind higher order structures, usually consuming energy from the hydrolysis of ATP molecules. The biological roles of helicases are associated with a variety of DNA and/or RNA metabolisms, including DNA-replication, -repair, -recombination, RNA processing, and transcription. Dysfunctions of helicases cause various diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), premature aging syndrome, cancer and immunodeficiency, in humans. Moreover, recent genetic analyses revealed that mutations in helicase-encoding genes are frequently found in patients of specific diseases. Some helicases regulate cellular senescence by controlling integrity of genomes, and others play a role in neuromuscular functions presumably by modulating processing of mRNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms of how helicases are regulated in order to maintain our health are not yet fully understood. In this research topic, we will focus on the expression and functions of helicases and their encoding genes, reviewing recent research progresses that provide new insights into development of clinical and pharmaceutical treatments targeting helicases.

Keywords

Aging --- Cancer --- DNA Repair --- helicases --- Telomere

The Evolving Telomeres

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198818 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-881-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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What controls the different rates of evolution to give rise to conserved and divergent proteins and RNAs? How many trials until evolution can adapt to physiological changes? Every organism has arisen through multiple molecular changes, and the mechanisms that are employed (mutagenesis, recombination, transposition) have been an issue left to the elegant discipline of evolutionary biology. But behind the theory are realities that we have yet to ascertain: How does an evolving cell accommodate its requirements for both conserving its essential functions, while also providing a selective advantage? In this volume, we focus on the evolution of the eukaryotic telomere, the ribo-nuclear protein complex at the end of a linear chromosome. The telomere is an example of a single chromosomal element that must function to maintain genomic stability. The telomeres of all species must provide a means to avoid the attrition from semi-conservative DNA replication and a means of telomere elongation (the telomere replication problem). For example, telomerase is the most well-studied mechanism to circumvent telomere attrition by adding the short repeats that constitutes most telomeres. The telomere must also guard against the multiple activities that can act on an unprotected double strand break requiring a window (or checkpoint) to compensate for telomere sequence loss as well as protection against non-specific processes (the telomere protection problem). This volume describes a range of methodologies including mechanistic studies, phylogenetic comparisons and data-based theoretical approaches to study telomere evolution over a broad spectrum of organisms that includes plants, animals and fungi. In telomeres that are elongated by telomerases, different components have widely different rates of evolution. Telomerases evolved from roots in archaebacteria including splicing factors and LTR-transposition. At the conserved level, the telomere is a rebel among double strand breaks (DSBs) and has altered the function of the highly conserved proteins of the ATM pathway into an elegant means of protecting the chromosome end and maintaining telomere size homeostasis through a competition of positive and negative factors. This homeostasis, coupled with highly conserved capping proteins, is sufficient for protection. However, far more proteins are present at the telomere to provide additional species-specific functions. Do these proteins provide insight into how the cell allows for rapid change without self-destruction?

Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Genetics of Aging and Longevity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199266 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-926-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In this book, we present a collection of articles covering a wide range of current aging research and highlighting its prospects and future directions. These articles are based on or related to the topics of the 3rd International Conference «Genetics of aging and longevity». The Conference took place 6-10 April, 2014 in Sochi, the city located on the Black Sea coast near the Caucasian mountains, in Russia. Top gerontologists and geneticists from 31 countries around the world came together to discuss current problems in many areas related to the genetics of longevity and mechanisms of aging. We would like to thank those of them who contributed to this e-Book by sharing latest achievements, ideas and hypotheses. We hope that this e-Book will come to notice of scientists interested in the development of genetics of aging and longevity and in the search for life-beneficial environments and life-prolonging interventions.

Towards a molecular classification of colorectal cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195671 Year: Pages: 62 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-567-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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In 2007, Jeremy Jass proposed a molecular classification of colorectal cancer including KRAS, BRAF, Mismatch Repair, CIMP and MGMT Status. Since then, many prognostic and predictive studies have been published on this topic, mainly focusing on one single molecular marker. The aim of the e-book is to summarize the knowledge in 2014 from a multidisciplinary point of view that can potentially be used as a manual by CRC researchers in every field.

DNA Replication Controls

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ISBN: 9783038425724 9783038425731 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 346 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-573-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:38:10
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The conditions for DNA replication are not ideal, owing to endogenous and exogenous replication stresses that lead to arrest of the replication fork. Arrested forks are among the most serious threats to genomic integrity because they can break or rearrange, leading to genomic instability, which is a hallmark of cancers and aging-related disorders. This title, “DNA Replication Controls”, presents series of new reviews and original research articles, providing a comprehensive guide to theoretical advancements in the field of DNA replication research in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The topics include DNA polymerases and helicases; replication initiation; replication timing; replication-associated DNA repair; and replication of difficult-to-replicate genomic regions, including telomeres, centromeres and highly-transcribed regions. This title also provides recent advancements in studies of cellular processes that are coordinated with DNA replication and how defects in the DNA replication program result in genetic disorders, including cancer. Written by leading experts in DNA replication regulation, this book will be an important resource for a wide variety of audiences, including junior graduate students and established investigators who have interests in DNA replication and genome maintenance mechanisms.

DNA Replication Controls

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ISBN: 9783038425687 9783038425694 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 304 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-569-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-02 15:17:59
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The conditions for DNA replication are not ideal, owing to endogenous and exogenous replication stresses that lead to arrest of the replication fork. Arrested forks are among the most serious threats to genomic integrity because they can break or rearrange, leading to genomic instability, which is a hallmark of cancers and aging-related disorders.

Genetic Determinants of Human Longevity

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ISBN: 9783039216789 / 9783039216796 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-679-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the last two decades, due to the continuous increase of lifespans in Westernsocieties, and the consequent growing of the elderly population, have witnessedan increase in the number of studies on biological and molecular factors able topromote healthy aging and reach longevity. The study of the genetic componentof human longevity demonstrated that it accounts for 25% of intra populationphenotype variance. The efforts made to characterize the genetic determinantssuggested that the maintenance of cellular integrity, inflammation, oxidativestress response, DNA repair, as well as the use of nutrients, represent the mostimportant pathways correlated with a longer lifespan. However, although aplethora of variants were indicated to be associated with human longevity, onlyvery few were successfully replicated in different populations, probably becauseof population specificity, missing heritability as well as a complex interactionamong genetic factors with lifestyle and cultural factors, which modulate theindividual chance of living longer. Thus, many challenges remain to be addressedin the search for the genetic components of human longevity. This Special Issue isaimed to unify the progress in the analysis of the genetic determinants of humanlongevity, to take stock of the situation and point to future directions of the field.We invite submissions for reviews, research articles, short-communicationsdealing with genetic association studies in human longevity, including all types ofgenetic variation, as well as the characterization of longevity-related genes.

Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet

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ISBN: 9783039214938 / 9783039214945 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-494-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Growing evidence shows that a dietary pattern inspired by Mediterranean dietprinciples is associated with numerous health benefits. A Mediterranean-typediet has been demonstrated to exert a preventive effect toward cardiovasculardiseases, in both Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations. Part ofthese properties may depend on a positive action toward healthier metabolism,decreasing the risk of diabetes and metabolic-syndrome-related conditions.Some studies also suggested a potential role in preventing certain cancers. Finally,newer research has showed that a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet isassociated with a lower risk of cognitive decline, depression, and other mentaldisorders. Overall, a better understanding of the key elements of this dietarypattern, the underlying mechanisms, and targets, are needed to corroboratecurrent evidence and provide insights on new and potential outcomes.ThisSpecial Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerningthe Mediterranean diet and various health outcomes:Observational studies onestablished nutritional cohorts (preferred), case-control studies, or populationsample on the association with non-communicable diseases;Level of evidenceon the association with human health, including systematic reviews and metaanalyses;Evaluation of application of Mediterranean diet principles in non-Mediterranean countries;Description of mechanisms of action, pathways, andtargets at the molecular level, including interaction with gut microbiota.

Keywords

Mediterranean diet --- dietary intervention --- diet --- nutrition --- translation --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- cardiovascular disease --- Mediterranean diet --- physical activity --- self-concept --- socioeconomic factors --- Mediterranean diet --- diabetes --- cardiovascular risk --- glucose control --- plasma lipids --- relative Mediterranean diet score --- Mediterranean diet --- questionnaire --- children --- adolescents --- obesity --- Mediterranean diet --- athletes --- Spain --- dietary intake --- catechins --- resveratrol --- olive oil --- wine --- BMI --- Mediterranean diet --- barriers --- dietary change --- childbearing age --- diet quality --- depressive symptoms --- risk factors --- epidemiology --- immune system --- prevention --- hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal-HPA axis --- Mediterranean diet --- motivational climate --- sports --- university students --- Mediterranean diet --- metabolomics --- microbiome --- Mediterranean diet --- DNA damage --- DNA repair --- telomere length --- dietary intervention study --- Mediterranean diet --- sleep quality --- cognitive decline --- dementia --- weight status --- mental health --- obesity --- cohort --- Italy --- Mediterranean diet --- quality of life --- mental health --- fruit --- vegetable --- dairy --- nuts --- fish --- whole-grain --- food groups --- Mediterranean diet --- pregnancy --- offspring --- child health --- Mediterranean diet --- Mediterranean diet pyramid --- noncommunicable diseases --- Mediterranean Diet --- public health policy --- childhood obesity --- healthy lifestyle --- health communication --- n/a

Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health

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ISBN: 9783039212118 / 9783039212125 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-212-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As computer and space technologies have been developed, geoscience information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies, which deal with the geospatial information, have been rapidly maturing. Moreover, over the last few decades, machine learning techniques including artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning, decision tree, and support vector machine (SVM) have been successfully applied to geospatial science and engineering research fields. The machine learning techniques have been widely applied to GIS and RS research fields and have recently produced valuable results in the areas of geoscience, environment, natural hazards, and natural resources. This book is a collection representing novel contributions detailing machine learning techniques as applied to geoscience information systems and remote sensing.

Keywords

aging --- chronic low-grade systemic inflammation --- physical activity --- nutrition --- physical performance --- chronic diseases --- adolescent --- free or reduced lunch --- National School Lunch Program --- Fitbit --- soccer --- low-income --- Latino --- added sugar --- sport nutrition --- sport --- older adults --- diet quality --- physical activity --- telemonitoring --- lifestyle intervention --- mechanisms of impact --- mediation analyses --- dietary restriction --- macronutrients --- physical exercise --- free radicals --- cytokines --- childhood memories --- sport spectators --- sport games --- sporting events --- music events --- food consumption --- out-of-home eating --- food healthiness --- immunity --- inflammation --- metabolism --- physical activity --- physical activity --- food intake --- adolescents --- movement skills --- fitness --- nutrition education --- health promotion --- behavioral intervention --- self-efficacy --- stunting --- overweight --- obesity --- physical activity --- dual burden of malnutrition --- compensatory eating --- exercise-induced anorexia --- food choice --- acute exercise --- behavioral economics --- nudges --- aging --- exercise --- diet --- telomerase --- TERRA --- telomere length --- senescence --- dietary intake --- physical activity --- body weight --- lifestyle change --- cardiometabolic health --- long-term follow-up --- vegetarian --- vegan --- half-marathon --- marathon --- running --- health conscious --- recreational athlete --- Protein --- oxidation --- anabolic competence --- breath test --- naturally enriched 13C-milk proteins --- endurance exercise --- skeletal muscle damage --- inflammation --- protein --- carbohydrates --- protein shake --- food --- n/a

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