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Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and Trichoderma Species

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ISBN: 9783038979807 9783038979814 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-981-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The importance of bioactive natural compounds in pharmacology and other biotechnological fields has stimulated the scientific community to explore new environmental contexts and their associated microbial diversity. As the largest frontier in biological discovery, the sea represents a significant source of organisms producing novel secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. Of the available biological material, fungi have received increasing consideration, both due to their pervasive occurrence in varying habitats as well as their aptitude to develop symbiotic associations with higher organisms in numerous contexts. In many cases, fungal strains have been reported as the real producers of drugs originally extracted from marine plants and animals. Due to the constantly increasing number of marine-derived fungi yielding valuable bioactive products, it is now appropriate to present these findings to a recipient audience in a more organized form. This Special Issue of Marine Drugs, entitled “Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Trichoderma Species"" is specifically focused on a few genera of ascomycetous fungi which are widespread regarding marine contexts and are particularly inclined to establishing symbiotic relationships. For this project, we welcome submissions of full research papers, short notes, and review articles reporting the discovery and characterization of products showing antibiotic, antitumor, antiviral, insecticidal, antimalarial, antifouling, antioxidant, plant growth-promoting and/or resistance-inducing, as well as other less-exploited activities.

MicroRNA as Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039212491 9783039212507 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-250-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the first microRNA. The size of the microRNome and complexity of animal body plans and organ systems suggests a role for microRNAs in cell fate determination and differentiation. More than 2000 sequences have been proposed to represent unique microRNA genes in humans, with an increasing number of mechanistic roles identified in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. Thus, dysregulation of a few key microRNAs can have a profound global effect on the gene expression and molecular programs of a cell. This great potential for clinical intervention has captured the interest and imagination of researchers in many fields. However, very few fields have been as prolific as the field of cancer research. This Special Issue provides but a glimpse of the large body of literature of microRNA biology in cancer research, containing 4 original research studies and 4 review articles that focus on specific hematologic or solid tumors in disease. Collectively, these articles highlight state-of-the-art approaches and methodologies for microRNA detection in tissue, blood, and other body fluids in a range of biomarkers applications, from early cancer detection to prognosis and treatment response. The articles also address some of the challenges regarding clinical implementation.

Role of Natural Compounds in Inflammation and Inflammatory-Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039215522 9783039215539 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-553-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The papers reported here will contribute to proposing new insights into the mechanisms of several conditions, as well as suggesting new diagnostic alternatives and therapeutic targets in widespread pathologies such inflammation and inflammatory-based diseases. The discovery of the new is, as always, anchored in recourse to the old.

Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis

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ISBN: 9783038970651 9783038970668 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-066-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Arthritis has a high prevalence globally and includes over 100 different types, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The exact etiology of arthritis remains unclear and no cure exists. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of arthritis but are associated with significant side effects. Novel modes of therapy and additional prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed for arthritis patients. This book summarizes and discusses the global picture of the current understanding of arthritis.

Keywords

biosimilars --- Th9 lymphocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- infliximab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- bone erosion --- osteoblasts --- next-generation sequencing --- bioinformatics --- microRNA --- messenger RNA --- osteoarthritis --- cell signaling --- IL1? --- WNT --- antagonists --- computational modeling --- nitric oxide --- clodronate --- gene expression --- osteoarthritis --- progenitor cells --- SOX9 --- spondyloarthropathies --- inflammation --- mesenchymal stem cells --- visfatin --- IL-6 --- TNF-? --- osteoarthritis --- miR-199a-5p --- Epstein-Barr virus --- glycoprotein 42 --- rheumatoid arthritis --- shared epitope --- triptolide --- rheumatoid arthritis --- basic research --- clinical translation --- osteoarthritis (OA) --- articular cartilage --- molecular pathology --- therapeutics --- rheumatoid arthritis --- antibodies --- collagen --- glycosylation --- disease pathways --- therapy --- experimental arthritis --- TNF? --- etanercept --- infliximab --- adalimumab --- certolizumab pegol --- golimumab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- therapeutic antibody --- structure --- fraxinellone --- collagen-induced arthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- inflammatory arthritis --- osteoclastogenesis --- sclareol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- synovial cell --- collagen --- mice --- cytokines --- Th17 --- MAPK --- arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- small-molecule inhibitor --- chondrocytes --- tumor necrosis factor-alpha --- inflammation --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- angiogenesis --- cytokines --- chemokines --- early osteoarthritis --- articular cartilage --- proliferation --- fibroblast growth factor 2 --- mitogen activated protein kinase --- transforming growth factor ? --- SMA- and MAD-related protein --- interleukin --- nuclear factor kappa B --- miRNA --- adjuvant arthritis --- arthritis --- biomarkers --- celastrol --- inflammation --- microRNA --- miRNA --- rat --- rheumatoid arthritis --- Traditional Chinese medicine --- tripterine --- triterpenoid --- spinal fusion --- biological --- osteoblast --- osteoclast --- bisphosphonate --- parathyroid hormone --- bone morphogenetic protein --- receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B --- stem cell --- drug delivery system --- anticitrullinated peptide antibodies --- antirheumatic drug --- autoimmune --- disease-modifying --- immunology --- pathology --- rheumatoid factor --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- adipokines --- obesity --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- anti-arthritis --- biomarkers

Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

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ISBN: 9783038977162 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-717-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts that was published in JoF

Keywords

Candida auris --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- antifungal resistance --- multidrug resistance --- mechanisms of antifungal resistance --- liver disease --- hepatic impairment --- invasive fungal infection --- antifungal agent --- antifungal drug --- toxicity --- Immunotherapy --- invasive aspergillosis --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- fungal infections --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- cell therapy --- cytokine therapy --- taxonomy --- fungal nomenclature --- phylogenetics --- species complex --- invasive fungal infections --- mycoses --- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome --- fungal immunity --- prognostic risk model --- prediction models --- risk score --- invasive mold disease --- hematological malignancy --- risk assessment --- antifungal stewardship --- paracoccidioidomycosis --- HIV --- cancer --- lymphoma --- kidney transplant --- TNF inhibitors --- literature review --- MALDI-ToF MS --- yeast --- fungus --- AIDS --- IRIS --- cat-transmitted sporotrichosis --- immunocompromised hosts --- mycoses of implantation --- sporotrichosis --- Sporothrix brasiliensis --- Sporothrix schenckii --- subcutaneous mycoses --- invasive fungal infection --- non-culture-based diagnostics --- aspergillosis --- candidiasis --- Aspergillus PCR --- galactomannan --- lateral flow --- beta-d-glucan --- T2 Candida --- candidemia --- Candida meningoencephalitis --- (1?3)-?-d-glucan --- T2Candida --- PCR --- liposomal amphotericin B --- micafungin --- anidulafungin --- Aspergillus --- anti-fungal agents --- hematological malignancies

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039216468 9783039216475 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-647-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Keywords

microbiota --- rheumatoid arthritis --- anti-TNF-? --- methotrexate --- etanercept --- disease activity --- microbiome --- health --- precision medicine --- genomics --- bacteriocins --- bacteriophages --- antibiotics --- gastrointestinal diseases --- dysbiosis --- gut barrier --- gut microbiota --- virus --- vaginal microbiota --- HIV --- HPV --- HSV2 --- cytokines --- chemokines --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- microbiota --- autoimmunity --- etiopathogenesis --- Candida albicans --- 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyBenzaldehyde --- melanin --- colitis --- anaerobic bacteria --- aerobic bacteria --- gut microbiota --- gut-liver axis --- chronic liver diseases --- fecal transplantation --- probiotics --- gut microbiota --- immunological niche --- dysbiosis --- cancer --- immune system --- cutaneous immunity --- microbiome --- Staphylococcus spp., T cells --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Staphylococcus epidermis --- commensals --- atopic dermatitis --- intravenous immunoglobulin G --- colitis --- dextran sulfate sodium --- mice --- inflammation --- cytokines --- Candida albicans --- Escherichia coli --- Enterococcus faecalis --- gut microbiota --- chemo free treatment --- lymphoid malignancies --- 16S rRNA gene --- chondroitin sulfate disaccharide --- co-occurrence network --- global network --- microbial interactions --- microbiome --- modularity --- superoxide dismutase --- gut microbiota --- macrophages --- TLR mimicry --- immune epigenetics --- metabolism --- sterile inflammation --- microbiota --- microbiome --- immunotherapy --- adoptive cell transfer (ACT) --- CAR T-cell --- TCR --- TIL --- checkpoint inhibitors --- immuno-oncology --- cancer --- diet --- n/a

Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287741 / 9783039287758 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-775-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Electrospinning is a versatile and effective technique widely used to manufacture nanofibrous structures from a diversity of materials (synthetic, natural or inorganic). The electrospun nanofibrous meshes’ composition, morphology, porosity, and surface functionality support the development of advanced solutions for many biomedical applications. The Special Issue on “Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications” assembles a set of original and highly-innovative contributions showcasing advanced devices and therapies based on or involving electrospun meshes. It comprises 13 original research papers covering topics that span from biomaterial scaffolds’ structure and functionalization, nanocomposites, antibacterial nanofibrous systems, wound dressings, monitoring devices, electrical stimulation, bone tissue engineering to first-in-human clinical trials. This publication also includes four review papers focused on drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

Keywords

sol-gel --- electrospinning --- hydroxyapatite --- nanofiber --- antibacterial --- titanium --- antibacterial coatings --- electrospinning --- nanocomposite coatings --- TiO2 photocatalytic --- orthopedic infections --- electrospinning --- 3D printing --- nanofibers --- encapsulation --- protein diffusion --- in vivo tissue engineering --- immuno-isolation --- transplantation --- electrospinning --- sputtering --- drug delivery --- wound dressing --- biocompatibility --- tissue engineering --- biomimetic scaffolds --- gelatin --- electrospinning --- micromolding --- biomaterials --- poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) --- bioactive glass --- scaffolds --- electrospinning --- composite fibres --- bone regeneration --- poly(vinylidene fluoride) --- composite nanofiber --- piezoelectricity --- antioxidant activity --- well-aligned nanofibers --- P(VDF-TrFE) --- piezoelectric nanogenerator --- preosteoblasts electrospinning --- silicone modified polyurethane nanofibers --- physical properties --- cell attachment --- cell proliferation --- cytotoxicity --- biopolymers --- packaging --- pharmaceutical --- biomedical --- electrospinning --- alginate --- gelatin fibers --- ZnO particles --- antibacterial activity --- electrospinning --- nanofibers --- fabrication --- therapeutics --- biomedical applications --- antibody immobilization --- electrospun nanofibers --- TNF-? capture --- human articular chondrocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- nanofibers --- microfluidic chip --- electrospinning --- live assay --- hepatocellular carcinoma cells --- PLA95 --- biocompatibility --- guided tissue regeneration (GTR) --- electrospinning --- electrospun fiber mats --- mechanobiology --- glioblastoma --- biomaterials --- finite element modeling --- electrospun nanofibers --- cancer treatment --- drug release --- nanomedicine --- biocompatible polymers --- hyperthermia

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

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ISBN: 9783039282562 9783039282579 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-257-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The cytoplasm of Gram-negative bacteria is bound by three layers: an inner membrane, a layer of peptidoglycan, and an outer membrane. The outer membrane is an asymmetric lipidic bilayer, with phospholipids on its inner surface and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on the outside, with the latter being the major component of the outer leaflet and covering nearly three-quarters of the total outer cell surface. All LPSs possess the same general chemical architecture independently of bacterial activity (pathogenic, symbiotic, commensal), ecological niche (human, animal, soil, plant, water), or growth conditions. Endotoxins are large amphiphilic molecules consisting of a hydrophilic polysaccharide component and a covalently bound hydrophobic and highly conserved lipid component, termed lipid A (the endotoxin subunit). The polysaccharide component can be divided into two subdomains: the internal and conserved core region as well as the more external and highly variable O-specific chain, also referred to as the O-antigen due to its immunogenic properties. LPSs are endotoxins, one of the most potent class of activators of the mammalian immune system; they can be released from cell surfaces of bacteria during multiplication, lysis, and death. LPS can act through its biological center (lipid A component) on various cell types, of which macrophages and monocytes are the most important.

Keywords

aspirin --- hepcidin --- P65 (nuclear factor-?B) --- IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- nitric oxide (NO) --- iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) --- Megalobrama amblycephala --- lipopolysaccharide induced TNF? factor --- lipopolysaccharide stimulation --- innate immune --- Aeromonas --- genomics --- inner core oligosaccharide --- outer core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- Erwinia amylovora --- NMR --- ESI FT-ICR --- structural determination --- Bordetellae --- Bordetella holmesii --- endotoxin --- lipid A --- structure --- mass spectrometry --- genomic --- Edwardsiella tarda --- core oligosaccharide --- MALDI-TOF MS --- ESI MSn --- NMR --- genomic --- LPS tolerance --- hypothalamic inflammation --- insulin resistance --- pJNK --- fibroblast --- keratocyte --- cornea --- lipopolysaccharide --- bacteria --- chemokine --- adhesion molecule --- collagen --- tear fluid --- serum resistance --- complement --- Salmonella --- lipopolysaccharide --- sialic acid --- reptile-associated salmonellosis --- sepsis --- time response --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- endotoxaemia --- mouse --- rat --- lipopolysaccharide --- double-stranded RNA --- epithelial cell --- dendritic cell --- allergic respiratory disorder --- hygiene hypothesis --- rhinovirus --- respiratory syncytial virus --- toll-like receptor --- LPS --- lipopolysaccharide --- heptosyltransferase --- protein dynamics --- glycosyltransferase --- GT-B --- inhibitor design --- lipopolysaccharide --- Coxiella burnetii --- Q fever --- phagosome --- virenose --- Plesiomonas shigelloides --- O-antigen --- lipopolysaccharide --- O-acetylation --- d-galactan I --- HR-MAS --- NMR spectroscopy --- endotoxin --- lipopolysaccharide --- Low Endotoxin Recovery --- phase transitions --- polysorbate --- LPS aggregates --- Small Angle X-ray Scattering --- MAT --- LAL and LER --- anti-conjugate serum --- core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- NMR spectroscopy --- ESI MS --- Proteus penneri

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 1

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280827 9783039280834 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-083-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 2

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281145 9783039281152 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-115-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

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