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Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world’s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Natural Products and Drug Discovery

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ISBN: 9783039287468 / 9783039287475 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-747-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Natural products hold a prominent position in the current discovery and development of drugs and have diverse indications for both human and animal health. Plants, in particular, play a leading role as a source of specialized metabolites with medical effects. Other organisms, such as marine and terrestrial animals and microorganisms, produce very important drug candidate molecules. Specialized metabolites from these varied natural sources can be used directly as bioactive compounds or drug precursors. In addition, due to their broad chemical diversity, they can act as drug prototypes and/or be used as pharmacological tools for different targets. Some examples of natural metabolites that have been developed into useful medical drug are cardiotonic digoxin from Digitalis sp., antimalarial artemisinin from Artemisia annua, anti-cancer taxol from Taxus sp., or podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum, which served as a synthetic model for the anti-cancer etoposide. The study of natural products is still attracting great scientific attention and their current importance, as a valuable lead for drug discovery, is undebatable. I cordially invite authors to contribute original articles, as well as survey articles, that give the readers of Molecules **MOLECULES NEEDS TO BE ITALICIZED** updated and new perspectives on natural products in drug discovery, including but not limited to natural sources, identification and separation of bioactive phytochemicals, standardization, new biological targets, pre-clinical and clinical trials, pharmacological effects/side effects, and bioassays.

Keywords

cytotoxicity-guided --- phenolic derivatives --- Dryopteris fragrans --- chemical derivatization --- immuno-regulation activity --- Imperata cylindrica --- HPLC --- ESI-MS/MS --- growth inhibitory activity --- cancer --- cardamonin --- antinociceptive --- TRPV1 --- glutamate --- opioid --- siphonous green algae --- sulfated coumarins --- Dasycladus vermicularis --- isolation and quantification --- Orobanche s.l. --- Orobanchaceae --- Lamiales --- natural products --- secondary metabolites --- phenylpropanoid glycosides --- phenylethanoid glycosides --- bioactivities of natural products --- chemosystematics --- FSE --- T2DM --- GLUT4 --- Ca2+ --- L6 cell --- marine peptides --- proliferation --- migration --- angiogenesis --- zebrafish --- antioxidant activity --- flavonoids --- isoflavones --- phenolics --- proanthocyanidins --- Trifolium --- Leea indica --- HPLC-ESI-microTOF-Q-MS/MS --- phenolics --- dihydrochalcones --- Humulus lupulus --- prenylated phenolic compounds --- antimicrobial agents --- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus --- Leishmania mexicana mexicana --- Trypanosoma brucei brucei --- Astragalus boeticus L. --- spectroscopic analysis --- cytotoxic activity --- human colon cancer cell lines --- acetylated astragalosides --- Fabaceae --- aging --- cancer --- cardiovascular disease --- dementia --- diabetes --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- Harpagophytum procumbens --- devil’s claw --- harpagoside --- spagyric tincture --- antioxidant activity --- Cleistocalyx operculatus --- 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxy-3?,5?-dimethylchalcone (DMC) --- pPancreatic cancer --- PANC-1 --- ACE inhibitory peptide --- antihypertensive --- bioactive peptides --- hypertension --- marine resources --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- antimicrobial resistance --- synergy --- Phyllanthus orbicularis --- C-glycoside --- flavonoid --- natural products --- traditional medicine --- Cuba --- Phyllanthus chamacristoides --- chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- NMR --- circular dichroism --- stereochemistry --- Fideloside --- cytokines --- anti-inflammatory activity --- metabolomics --- multivariate data analysis --- molecular network --- Bacopa monnieri --- LC-MS --- diabetic neuropathy --- neuropathic pain --- glucosinolates --- Eruca sativa --- glucoerucin --- H2S --- Kv7 potassium channels --- artemisinin --- Physcomitrella patens --- sesquiterpenoids --- malaria --- biotechnology --- ketamine --- psychosis --- cerebellum --- celastrol --- oxidative stress --- NADPH oxidases --- n/a

Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

Author:
ISBN: 9783039217045 9783039217052 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-705-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Abstract

The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to changes in lifestyle which predispose individuals to overweight and obesity. It is estimated that about 90% of the currently diagnosed adults have type 2 diabetes, and based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) report, about 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014 compared with 108 million in 1980; this condition caused about 1.5 million deaths in 2012. In the United States of America, it is estimated that about 30.3 million adults are living with diabetes, with a further 1.5 million new diabetes cases diagnosed every year, representing an increasing prevalence of this condition. Diabetes represents a major public health challenge, despite advances in technology and the pharmaceutical industry. These problems may be in the form of acute or long-term complications. Therefore, in order to attenuate the problems of diabetes, management strategies usually include lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and dietary interventions. Studies which evaluate the role of nutrition in the management of type 2 diabetes often involve human and animal models as these approaches enable us to have a broader and more in-depth understanding of the condition. In some cases, diabetes may co-exist with other conditions, such as stroke, and these may present unique challenges with regard to nutritional interventions. This Special Issue aims to evaluate the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and the role of the diet in the management of people with this condition. This evidence is drawn from both human and animal studies.

Keywords

aronia --- ginseng --- mushroom --- pancreatectomy --- type 2 diabetes --- gut microbiome --- insulin secretion --- energy restricted diet --- low energy diet --- carbohydrate restricted diet --- low carbohydrate diet --- diabetes --- Japanese --- tempeh --- lactic acid bacteria --- short chain fatty acids --- metabolic syndrome --- high fat diet --- feces --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- peanut --- almond --- glycemic control --- body mass index --- lipids --- interleukin-6 --- muscle --- insulin resistance --- free fatty acids (FFA) --- diabetes --- rosemary extract --- AMPK --- prediabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- total body fat --- total body lean --- appendicular fat --- appendicular lean --- body composition --- cohort study --- micronutrients --- trace elements --- food --- glycated hemoglobin A --- hyperglycemia --- dietary pattern --- triglyceride --- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol --- type 2 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- nutrition --- DASH --- diet quality --- diabetes management --- dietary intake --- longitudinal analysis --- lifestyle management --- carbohydrate counting --- protein and fat counting --- insulin dosage --- glucose monitoring --- diabetes mellitus --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- Hedychium coronarium --- type 2 diabetes --- aldosterone --- streptozotocin --- metabolic syndrome --- folk medicine --- calcium intake --- dairy products --- vitamin D --- type 2 diabetes --- diabetes --- diabetes reversal --- bariatric surgery --- very-low-calorie --- low-carbohydrate --- zinc intake --- zinc status --- trace elements --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- epidemiology --- PUFA --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- glycemic control --- nuts --- fish --- fish oil --- vegetable oil --- type 2 diabetes --- vitamin D deficiency --- 25-OH-D --- women --- cardiovascular risk factors --- T2DM --- obesity --- glycaemic index --- incretins --- subjective appetite --- isomaltulose --- sucromalt --- nutritional supplement --- type 2 diabetes --- gestational diabetes --- glycemic index --- randomised controlled trial --- lipid profile --- inflammatory parameters --- diabetes specific formula --- standard formula --- type 2 diabetes --- enteral nutrition --- enteral tube feeding --- lipids --- fasting blood glucose --- glycated haemoglobin --- type 2 diabetes --- dietary intake --- glycaemic control --- dietary management approaches --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- nutrition --- chronic conditions --- lipid parameters

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