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The Origin and Evolution of the Genetic Code: 100th Anniversary Year of the Birth of Francis Crick

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ISBN: 9783038427698 9783038427704 Year: Pages: X, 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-770-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:38:32
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Abstract

The genetic code is one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century as it is central to life itself. It is the algorithm that connects 64 RNA triplets to 20 amino acids, thus functioning as the Rosetta Stone of molecular biology. Following the discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, George Gamow organized the 20-member “RNA Tie Club” to discuss the transmission of information by DNA. Crick, Sydney Brenner, Leslie Barnett, and Richard Watts-Tobin first demonstrated the three bases of DNA code for one amino acid. The decoding of the genetic code was begun by Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei and was completed by Har Gobind Khorana. Then, finally, Brenner, Barnett, Eugene Katz, and Crick placed the last piece of the jigsaw puzzle of life by proving that UGA was a third stop codon. In the mid-1960s, Carl Woese proposed the “stereochemical hypothesis”, which speculated that the genetic code derives from a type of codon–amino acid-pairing interaction. The origin and evolution of the genetic code remains a mystery despite numerous theories and attempts to understand these. In this Special Issue, experts in the field present their thoughts and views on this topic. Because 2016 commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Francis Crick, the Guest Editor of this Special Issue also dedicates all articles included herein to the memory of Francis Crick.

Coordination Chemistry of Silicon

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ISBN: 9783038976387 Year: Pages: 225 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-639-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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The chemistry of silicon has always been a field of major concern due to its proximity to carbon on the periodic table. From the molecular chemist's viewpoint, one of the most interesting differences between carbon and silicon is their divergent coordination behavior. In fact, silicon is prone to form hyper-coordinate organosilicon complexes, and, as conveyed by reports in the literature, highly sophisticated ligand systems are required to furnish low-coordinate organosilicon complexes. Tremendous progress in experimental, as well as computational, techniques has granted synthetic access to a broad range of coordination numbers for silicon, and the scientific endeavor, which was ongoing for decades, was rewarded with landmark discoveries in the field of organosilicon chemistry. Molecular congeners of silicon(0), as well as silicon oxides, were unveiled, and the prominent group 14 metalloid proved its applicability in homogenous catalysis as a supportive ligand or even as a center of catalytic activity. This book focuses on the most recent advances in the coordination chemistry of silicon with transition metals as well as main group elements, including the stabilization of low-valent silicon species through the coordination of electron donor ligands. Therefore, this book is associated with the development of novel synthetic methodologies, structural elucidations, bonding analysis, and also possible applications in catalysis or chemical transformations using related organosilicon compounds.

Keywords

silanetriols --- disiloxane tetrols --- silsesquioxanes --- condensation --- molecular cage --- platinum --- primary silane --- hydrido complex --- oxidative addition --- ligand-exchange reaction --- X-ray crystallography --- Si–Cl activation --- germylene --- digermene --- digermacyclobutadiene --- palladium --- cluster --- cyclic organopolysilane --- template --- bridging silylene ligand --- isocyanide --- hydrogen bonds --- silicon --- 2-silylpyrrolidines --- stereochemistry --- X-ray crystallography --- Baird’s rule --- computational chemistry --- excited state aromaticity --- Photostability --- dye-sensitized solar cell --- disilanylene polymer --- photoreaction --- surface modification --- TiO2 --- silylene --- germylene --- N-heterocyclic carbene --- oxidative addition --- siloxanes --- host-guest chemistry --- supramolecular chemistry --- main group coordination chemistry --- hydrogen bonding --- adsorption --- bond activation --- bonding analysis --- density functional theory --- distorted coordination --- molecular orbital analysis --- silicon surfaces --- disilene --- functionalization --- ?-electron systems --- silicon --- N-heterocyclic carbenes --- bromosilylenes --- silyliumylidenes --- dehydrobromination --- silicon cluster --- siliconoid --- nanoparticle --- computation --- silicon --- N-heterocyclic carbenes --- silyliumylidenes --- small molecule activation --- mechanistic insights --- organosilicon --- reductant --- N-Heterocyclic tetrylene --- salt-free --- germanium --- germanethione --- germathioacid chloride --- N-heterocyclic carbines --- ?-chloro-?-hydrooligosilane --- titanium --- ruthenium --- dehydrogenative alkoxylation --- cluster --- isomerization --- silicon --- siliconoid --- subvalent compounds --- AIM --- DFT --- intermetallic bond --- 29Si NMR spectroscopy --- X-ray diffraction

Natural Products and Drug Discovery

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ISBN: 9783039287468 / 9783039287475 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-747-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Natural products hold a prominent position in the current discovery and development of drugs and have diverse indications for both human and animal health. Plants, in particular, play a leading role as a source of specialized metabolites with medical effects. Other organisms, such as marine and terrestrial animals and microorganisms, produce very important drug candidate molecules. Specialized metabolites from these varied natural sources can be used directly as bioactive compounds or drug precursors. In addition, due to their broad chemical diversity, they can act as drug prototypes and/or be used as pharmacological tools for different targets. Some examples of natural metabolites that have been developed into useful medical drug are cardiotonic digoxin from Digitalis sp., antimalarial artemisinin from Artemisia annua, anti-cancer taxol from Taxus sp., or podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum, which served as a synthetic model for the anti-cancer etoposide. The study of natural products is still attracting great scientific attention and their current importance, as a valuable lead for drug discovery, is undebatable. I cordially invite authors to contribute original articles, as well as survey articles, that give the readers of Molecules **MOLECULES NEEDS TO BE ITALICIZED** updated and new perspectives on natural products in drug discovery, including but not limited to natural sources, identification and separation of bioactive phytochemicals, standardization, new biological targets, pre-clinical and clinical trials, pharmacological effects/side effects, and bioassays.

Keywords

cytotoxicity-guided --- phenolic derivatives --- Dryopteris fragrans --- chemical derivatization --- immuno-regulation activity --- Imperata cylindrica --- HPLC --- ESI-MS/MS --- growth inhibitory activity --- cancer --- cardamonin --- antinociceptive --- TRPV1 --- glutamate --- opioid --- siphonous green algae --- sulfated coumarins --- Dasycladus vermicularis --- isolation and quantification --- Orobanche s.l. --- Orobanchaceae --- Lamiales --- natural products --- secondary metabolites --- phenylpropanoid glycosides --- phenylethanoid glycosides --- bioactivities of natural products --- chemosystematics --- FSE --- T2DM --- GLUT4 --- Ca2+ --- L6 cell --- marine peptides --- proliferation --- migration --- angiogenesis --- zebrafish --- antioxidant activity --- flavonoids --- isoflavones --- phenolics --- proanthocyanidins --- Trifolium --- Leea indica --- HPLC-ESI-microTOF-Q-MS/MS --- phenolics --- dihydrochalcones --- Humulus lupulus --- prenylated phenolic compounds --- antimicrobial agents --- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus --- Leishmania mexicana mexicana --- Trypanosoma brucei brucei --- Astragalus boeticus L. --- spectroscopic analysis --- cytotoxic activity --- human colon cancer cell lines --- acetylated astragalosides --- Fabaceae --- aging --- cancer --- cardiovascular disease --- dementia --- diabetes --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- Harpagophytum procumbens --- devil’s claw --- harpagoside --- spagyric tincture --- antioxidant activity --- Cleistocalyx operculatus --- 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxy-3?,5?-dimethylchalcone (DMC) --- pPancreatic cancer --- PANC-1 --- ACE inhibitory peptide --- antihypertensive --- bioactive peptides --- hypertension --- marine resources --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- antimicrobial resistance --- synergy --- Phyllanthus orbicularis --- C-glycoside --- flavonoid --- natural products --- traditional medicine --- Cuba --- Phyllanthus chamacristoides --- chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- NMR --- circular dichroism --- stereochemistry --- Fideloside --- cytokines --- anti-inflammatory activity --- metabolomics --- multivariate data analysis --- molecular network --- Bacopa monnieri --- LC-MS --- diabetic neuropathy --- neuropathic pain --- glucosinolates --- Eruca sativa --- glucoerucin --- H2S --- Kv7 potassium channels --- artemisinin --- Physcomitrella patens --- sesquiterpenoids --- malaria --- biotechnology --- ketamine --- psychosis --- cerebellum --- celastrol --- oxidative stress --- NADPH oxidases --- n/a

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