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Staphylococcus aureus Toxins

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ISBN: 9783039214259 / 9783039214266 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-426-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Staphylococcus aureus is a common inhabitant of the human body with which we co-exist. However, this species can also cause disease in humans when an appropriate opportunity arises, such as a cut or some other breakdown in our body’s defenses. S. aureus is able to initiate infections due, in part, to the diverse group of toxins that they secrete. The exotoxins produced by S. aureus can cause direct damage, thwart our own body’s defenses, or trigger massive amounts of cytokines that lead to indirect damage within the human body. In this book are 12 research articles that deal with different aspects of staphylococcal exotoxins. Some of the work gives an overview about how the toxins contribute to the disease process. Other articles discuss different aspects of several exotoxins, and two articles are centered on countermeasures against S. aureus infections. Overall, this book will give the reader a good overview of how staphylococcal exotoxins contribute to initiating and sustaining infections in humans.

Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality

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ISBN: 9783039213917 / 9783039213924 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-392-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- vB_SauM-fRuSau02 --- Twortlikevirus --- antibiotic --- antimicrobial resistance --- magistral preparation --- compounding pharmacy --- phage therapy --- regulatory framework --- personalized medicine --- bacteriophage --- phage --- horizontal gene transfer --- co-evolution --- phage therapy --- industrial phage application --- antimicrobial resistance (AMR) --- Germany --- pH stability --- phage-host interactions --- genomics --- antibiotic-resistance --- phage preparation --- lysins --- biofilms --- typhoid fever --- Salmonella Typhi --- extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) --- Democratic Republic of the Congo --- bacteriophages --- MALDI-MS --- Staphylococcus --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- Kayvirus --- Viral proteins --- bacteriophage --- therapy --- phage therapy --- bacterial disease --- infection --- target selection --- Bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- resistance --- adaptation --- prophage --- production --- regulation --- phage therapy --- viral genomes --- best practices --- IND --- high-throughput sequencing --- bacteriophages --- phages --- food safety --- foodborne illness --- phage therapy --- history of science --- science communication --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- sustainable agriculture --- zoonosis --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- experimental therapy --- phage cocktails --- anti-phage antibodies --- prophage --- immunomodulation --- phage therapy --- evolution --- bacterial resistance --- virulence --- Listeria ivanovii --- bacteriophages --- alginate --- production --- disinfection --- phagodisinfection --- virus–host interactions --- bacteriophage efficacy --- gastrointestinal tract --- phage therapy --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- antimicrobial resistance --- antibiotic --- global health --- developing countries --- infectious disease --- bacteriophage --- phage --- phage therapy --- phage-resistance --- phage therapy --- bacterial infection --- capsule depolymerase --- antibiotic --- animal model --- bacterial resistance --- bacteriophage --- immunology --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- human host --- phage-human host interaction --- bacterial infection --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophage --- antibiotic therapy --- phage therapy --- cases report --- abortive infection --- prophage --- adsorption --- Enterococcus --- rhamnopolysaccharide --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- Staphylococcus aureus --- biofilm --- antimicrobial --- frequency of resistance --- phage sensitivity --- resistance management --- nontraditional antibacterial --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- antibiotic resistance --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Brussels --- Belgium --- phage biocontrol --- patent landscape --- crop production --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- multidrug-resistant bacteria --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage therapy --- compassionate use --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- PTMP --- ATMP --- regulatory framework --- pharmaceutical paradigm shift --- clinical trial --- magistral formula --- personalized medicine --- phage therapy --- E. faecalis --- OrthoMCL --- antimicrobial resistance --- capsule --- Galleria mellonella --- Klebsiella pneumoniae --- phage therapy --- n/a --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage --- personalised medicines --- phage therapy --- pharmaceutical legislation --- regulatory framework

Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214419 / 9783039214426 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-442-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Phages have shown a high biotechnological potential with numerous applications. The advent of high-resolution microscopy techniques aligned with omic and molecular tools have revealed innovative phage features and enabled new processes that can be further exploited for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of fields. The high-quality original articles and reviews presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the incredible potential of phages and their derived proteins in a wide range of biotechnological applications for human benefit. Considering the emergence of amazing new available bioengineering tools and the high abundance of phages and the multitude of phage proteins yet to be discovered and studied, we believe that the upcoming years will present us with many more fascinating and new previously unimagined phage-based biotechnological applications.

Keywords

gene expression regulation --- molecular probe --- macromolecular interactions --- phage-host interaction --- bacteriophage --- endolysin --- Clostridium perfringens --- alpha-sheet --- cancerous tumors --- capsid dynamics --- drug delivery vehicles --- native gel electrophoresis --- neurodegenerative disease --- pathogenic viruses --- phage display --- landscape phage --- major coat protein --- nanomedicine --- diagnostics --- biosensors --- M13 bacteriophage --- biofilm --- porous structure --- filters --- self-assembly --- T7phage library --- sarcoidosis --- tuberculosis --- microarray --- immunoscreening --- R-type pyocin --- bacteriocin --- contractile injection systems --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- X-ray crystallography --- receptor-binding protein --- Shigella flexneri --- bacteriophage --- tailspike proteins --- O-antigen --- serotyping --- microtiter plate assay --- fluorescence sensor --- bacteriophages --- encapsulation --- niosomes --- transfersomes --- liposomes --- Staphylococcus aureus --- phage --- Enterococcus faecalis --- Streptococcus agalactiae --- culture enrichment --- bacteriophage --- diagnostics --- Listeria monocytogenes --- endolysin --- magnetic separation --- reporter phage --- endolysin --- Pal --- Cpl-1 --- safety --- toxicity --- immune response --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- self-assembly --- nanotubular structures --- tail sheath protein --- bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3 --- Appelmans --- bacteriophage evolution --- bacteriophage recombination --- phage therapy --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophages --- Myoviridae --- bacteriophage-derived lytic enzyme --- enzybiotics --- endolysin --- in vitro activity --- ESKAPE --- n/a

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039216468 / 9783039216475 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-647-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Keywords

microbiota --- rheumatoid arthritis --- anti-TNF-? --- methotrexate --- etanercept --- disease activity --- microbiome --- health --- precision medicine --- genomics --- bacteriocins --- bacteriophages --- antibiotics --- gastrointestinal diseases --- dysbiosis --- gut barrier --- gut microbiota --- virus --- vaginal microbiota --- HIV --- HPV --- HSV2 --- cytokines --- chemokines --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- microbiota --- autoimmunity --- etiopathogenesis --- Candida albicans --- 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyBenzaldehyde --- melanin --- colitis --- anaerobic bacteria --- aerobic bacteria --- gut microbiota --- gut-liver axis --- chronic liver diseases --- fecal transplantation --- probiotics --- gut microbiota --- immunological niche --- dysbiosis --- cancer --- immune system --- cutaneous immunity --- microbiome --- Staphylococcus spp., T cells --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Staphylococcus epidermis --- commensals --- atopic dermatitis --- intravenous immunoglobulin G --- colitis --- dextran sulfate sodium --- mice --- inflammation --- cytokines --- Candida albicans --- Escherichia coli --- Enterococcus faecalis --- gut microbiota --- chemo free treatment --- lymphoid malignancies --- 16S rRNA gene --- chondroitin sulfate disaccharide --- co-occurrence network --- global network --- microbial interactions --- microbiome --- modularity --- superoxide dismutase --- gut microbiota --- macrophages --- TLR mimicry --- immune epigenetics --- metabolism --- sterile inflammation --- microbiota --- microbiome --- immunotherapy --- adoptive cell transfer (ACT) --- CAR T-cell --- TCR --- TIL --- checkpoint inhibitors --- immuno-oncology --- cancer --- diet --- n/a

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Bioactive Compounds (Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Charles D. Hufford)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977803 9783038977810 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-781-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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We are very pleased to introduce the Book Version of our Special Issue in Molecules dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Dr. Charles D. Hufford. The issue has been a huge success, with 22 full-length peer-reviewed papers and a tribute by Professor Alice M.Clark. Authors, reviewers, and collaborators from many countries across the worldhave contributed to this endeavour, and we are truly grateful to all. This Special Issue isrepresentative of the broad impact that “Charlie” had on the field of bioactive naturalproducts. This Special Issue comprises papers from Professor Hufford’s former students,colleagues, and collaborators throughout the world who have utilized a wide array ofstate-of-the-art techniques to examine diverse natural sources to isolate and identify avariety of natural products with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including somenew microbial transformations and insights into bioactive molecules. Many new bioactive compounds are described and reported here for the first time. Bioactivities reportedinclude cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antileishmanialactivity, antitrypanosomal activity, antimalarial activity, analgesic activity, and beneficialliver activities, just to name a few. This Special Issue will undoubtedly have a lasting impact on the field of bioactive natural products, as exemplified by the career of Dr. Hufford.Lastly, without the timely and outstanding contributions from all of you, this Special Issue would not have been possible. We thank you all very much for your contributions and your time devoted to this Special Issue in memory of a special person. Finally, we express ourgratitude and thanks to the journal Molecules and their excellent team of expert reviewers for giving us the support and opportunity to make this Special Issue a huge success!

Keywords

fusidic acid --- Cunninghamella echinulata --- C-26-oxidation --- C-27-oxidation --- Morus alba L. --- aldose reductase inhibitor --- neuroprotective agent --- natural products --- Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. --- pentalogin --- anti-inflammatory --- MS/MS --- Il-8 --- Crinum amabile --- augustine N-oxide --- buphanisine N-oxide --- biological activities --- Cryptococcus neoformans --- cryptococcosis --- HepG2 --- Prosopis glandulosa --- prosopilosidine --- amphotericin B --- fluconazole --- resveratrol --- dietary supplement --- gastro-resistant --- microparticles --- obesity --- HPLC --- Jatropha pelargoniifolia --- alkaloids --- flavonoids --- coumarinolignans --- diterpenes --- anti-inflammatory --- analgesic --- antipyretic --- Cochlospermum vitifolium --- Cochlospermaceae --- flavonoids --- lignans --- aromatic compounds --- carotenoids --- sterols --- liver activity --- Arthrinium sp. --- chromone --- polyketide --- antioxidant activity --- Rubiaceae --- jenipapo --- HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS --- flavonoids glycosides --- Baccharis --- antimalarial activity --- antitrypanosomal activity --- insecticidal activity --- GC/MS --- DNA barcoding --- microscopy --- antibacterial --- channel catfish --- columnaris disease --- Flavobacterium columnare --- stilbenes --- muscadine --- pyranoanthocyanin --- anti-leishmanial activity --- Leishmania donovani --- maleimides --- cytotoxicity --- SAR --- phlorogluciniol --- acylphloroglucinol --- anti-inflammatory --- iNOS --- NF-?B --- endophytic fungi --- sesterterpene --- cytotoxic activity --- pancreatic cancer --- Stevia rebaudiana --- diterpene glycosides --- rebaudioside A isomers --- 13(S)-hydroxyatisenoic acid derivative --- iso-stevioside X-ray structure --- Litsea cubeba --- cytotoxicity --- isolation and elucidation --- lignans --- antimicrobial resistance --- multi-drug resistant (MDR) --- methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) --- Zingiber monatnum --- terpenes --- (E)-8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial --- zerumbol --- microbial transformation --- hop prenylflavanone --- isoxanthohumol --- cardiomyogenesis --- factor VII --- factor X --- inflammation --- thrombosis --- vasculogenesis --- herbal medicine --- n/a --- Nemania --- Xylariaceae --- Torreya taxifolia --- plant pathogenic and endophytic fungi --- cytochalasins --- malaria --- cytotoxicity --- phytotoxicity --- acacetin 7-methyl ether --- acacetin --- monoamine oxidase-A --- monoamine oxidase-B --- molecular docking --- molecular dynamics --- neurological disorder --- Turnera diffusa

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products 2018

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ISBN: 9783038977889 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-789-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

Throughout most of history, medicinal plants and their active metabolites have represented a valuable source of compounds used to prevent and to cure several diseases. Interest in natural compounds is still high as they represent a source of novel biologically/pharmacologically active compounds. Due to their high structural diversity and complexity, they are interesting structural scaffolds that can offer promising candidates for the study of new drugs, functional foods, and food additives.Plant extracts are a highly complex mixture of compounds and qualitative and quantitative analyses are necessary to ensure their quality. Furthermore, greener methods of extraction and analysis are needed today.This book is based on articles submitted for publication in the Special Issue entitled “Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products” that collected original research and reviews on these topics.

Keywords

Talaromyces pinophilus --- talarodiolide --- macrodiolides --- GC/MS --- secondary metabolites --- anthocyanins --- red cabbage --- recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography --- stability --- UHPLC-MS/MS --- decursin --- decursinol angelate --- nodakenin --- decursinol --- Ginkgo biloba Extract (GBE) --- chromatogram-bioactivity correlation --- bioactive compounds --- endothelial function --- wine --- volatile compounds --- terrain conditions --- odor-activity values --- SPME-GC/MS --- Bolbostemma paniculatum --- identification --- LTQ-Orbitrap --- UPLC --- multivariate statistical analysis --- cannabidiol --- CBD oil --- terpenes --- hemp seed oil --- GC-MS --- HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS --- Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro onion cultivar --- geographical origin --- amino acids content --- HPLC analysis --- statistical evaluations --- food traceability --- aleuritolic acid --- autophagy --- apoptosis --- HPLC --- Curcuma longa --- turmeric --- curcuminoids --- turmerone --- quantification --- Quercus acuta leaf --- antioxidant --- antibacterial activity --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Erigeron breviscapus extract --- UPLC-ESI-MS/MS --- cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury --- scutellarin --- scutellarein --- HPLC --- Podospermum --- Scorzonera --- triterpenes --- ginseng berry extract --- ginsenosides --- stereoselective and simultaneous analysis --- pharmacokinetics --- oral administration --- saffron --- crocins --- UHPLC analysis --- separation optimisation --- artificial neural network --- response surface methodology --- bioactive natural compounds --- secondary metabolites --- Alzheimer’s disease --- Olea europaea L. --- liquid chromatography --- gas chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- secondary metabolites --- olive leaves --- Moroccan region --- phenolic compounds --- liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry --- chemometrics --- metabolic profiling --- Sorbus --- fruit powders --- phenolic compounds --- carotenoids --- sugars --- organic acids --- chili --- capsaicinoids --- phenolics --- free radical-scavenging --- geographical variation --- 1-triacontanol --- HPLC-ELSD --- biostimulant --- method validation --- Myristica fragrans --- nutmeg --- essential oil --- ionic liquids --- hydrodistillation --- MODDE experimental design --- rice --- phenolic compounds --- phenolic acids --- flavonoids --- anthocyanins --- proanthocyanidins --- antioxidant activity --- extraction --- HPLC methods --- phenolic compounds --- Spondias spp. --- UPLC-MS --- antioxidant capacity --- Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz. --- HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS --- qualitative analysis --- quantitative analysis --- C-glycosylflavone --- traditional Chinese medicine decoction --- quality evaluation --- UPLC-QTOF-MS --- UFLC-QQQ-MS --- ShenFu prescription decoction

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