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Elites : Choice, Leadership and Succession

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ISBN: 9791036516344 DOI: 10.4000/books.etnograficapress.1278 Language: English
Publisher: Etnográfica Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:31
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Wealth and power characterize elites, yet despite the strong cultural influences they exert, their study remains underdeveloped. Partly because of complications resulting from access, scholars have tended to focus on groups affected by elite governance rather than on elites themselves. It is often overlooked that, in order to continue through time, elites have to empower new members. Choice has to be exercised over who achieves leadership, both by reference to the elite group itself and to the wider group over which it holds power. This book fills a gap in the current literature by providing the first rigorous interrogation of the choice and succession strategies of elites in various cultural contexts - from the transmission and preservation of financial power in urban contexts to the complex relation between subjectivity and the transmission of leadership positions in places as varied as the United States, Northern Italy and Lisbon. Various elite succession types are discussed, from self-avowedly 'traditional' leaders to the aristocracy, where choice is practically non-existent, to situations where leaders are elected from amongst a group of peers. The relationship between familial property and choice of successor in landholding families, small business enterprises, and peasant communities is also examined, as are ethnic monopolies.

Institutional determinants of social inequality

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197859 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-785-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Understanding the factors that create and maintain social inequalities is a core question in social psychology. Research has so far mainly focused on the role of individual stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. However, there is growing evidence that, beyond the “biased” acts of prejudiced individuals, structural factors related to the very functioning of institutions and organizations can play a role in the reproduction of social inequalities. Indeed, in industrialized countries, society is structured in a way that reflects the perspective of, is organized by, and benefits the dominant groups. In this Research Topic, we propose to bring together researchers who study how institutional ideologies and practices promote norms, rules and opportunities that favor dominant groups and disadvantage dominated groups. This question can be tackled by work investigating how institutional practices (e.g., grading, tracking, recruitment, …) and ideologies (e.g., meritocracy, individualism, protestant work ethic, …) shape the psychological experience of (dis)advantaged people. Moreover, another interesting venue is represented by work investigating how the institutional practices and ideologies are enacted by the agents (e.g., teachers, recruiters, leaders, …). Taking the perspective of agents allows to investigate how institutional functioning constrains the actual opportunities they provide to (dis)advantaged individuals. This could also highlight how institutional ideologies and practices are incorporated by agents, thus revealing mechanisms of change vs. perpetuation of the institutional functioning.

Grandes famílias, grandes empresas : Ensaio Antropológico sobre uma Elite de Lisboa

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ISBN: 9791036516306 DOI: 10.4000/books.etnograficapress.2790 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: Etnográfica Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:31
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Para perceber em toda a sua complexidade como é que as grandes empresas portuguesas se relacionam com as grandes famílias que são suas proprietárias era necessário optar por urna metodologia etnográfica. O presente livro é exemplo de como um estudo intensivo de um número de casos relativamente pequeno, pode bem ser mais revelador do que estudos que, sendo mais abrangentes em termos numéricos, estão dependentes de modelos de interpretação menos intensivos. A elite que Maria Antónia Pedroso de Lima caracteriza corresponde ao contexto social de maior acumulação de riqueza a nível nacional português e até a nível internacional. Contudo, não poderíamos afirmar que se trata da elite portuguesa, já que a vida política e cultural portuguesa contemporânea é controlada por outros sectores sociais cuja radicação social nas classes medias profissionais é bem distinta da destas famílias empresariais. O relativo distanciamento destas famílias dos meios políticos e mediáticos nacionais posiciona-as numa espécie de marginalidade superior por relação aos contextos hegemónicos dominantes na sociedade portuguesa contemporânea. (...)

A British Childhood? Some Historical Reflections on Continuities and Discontinuities in the Culture of Anglophone Childhood

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ISBN: 9783039219346 9783039219353 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-935-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book considers how adults attempt to socialise young children into the adults it aspires to produce, from a number of diverse perspectives. The evolution of storytelling and its impact upon child development is initially explored, followed by the consideration of how social class, ethnicity, culture, and colonialism impact upon the ways that societies ‘school’ children about what to expect from adulthood. Different perspectives of early years education and growing up within a British/British colonial perspective are discussed and analysed. There is a focus throughout upon the way that children are constructed by the society in question, particularly those who are considered to be of lower status in terms of being poor, orphaned, or from ethnic groups against which the dominant culture discriminates. Topics covered by the chapters include topics covered by this Special Issue: current and historical constructions of childhood; the development of linguistic and ‘storying’ skills in childhood; childhood play and recreation; childhood and ‘folk’ narratives; philosophies of childhood; childhood and industrialisation; childhood and post-industrialisation; childhood education; childhood health; and cultures of childcare.

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