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The Schistosomiasis Vaccine - It Is Time to Stand Up

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197415 Year: Pages: 82 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-741-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease, endemic in 74 developing countries with up to 600 million people, including many children, infected and 800 million at risk of contracting the disease following infection with Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium or S. japonicum. Disease burden is estimated to exceed 70 million disability-adjusted life-years, and leads to remarkably high YLD (years lived with disability) rates. Even more importantly, people with schistosomiasis are highly susceptible to malaria, tuberculosis and hepatic and acquired immunodeficiency viruses. There is only one drug, praziquantel, currently available for treatment and it has high efficacy, low cost, and limited side effects. However, only 13% of the target population has received the drug, and those treated are at continuous risk of reinfection necessitating repeated drug administration and the emergence of drug resistant parasites is a constant threat. There currently is no vaccine. While the target of >40% protection has been achieved with some molecules such as excretory-secretory proteins including calpain, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and cysteine peptidases, very recent articles reiterate the findings published during the last 2 decades of the last century, contradicting the established data of the pioneers of schistosome biology. A consensus should be reached without delay, in order to propose collaborative independent experiments and proceed ahead to pre- and clinical trials with efficacious candidate vaccine molecules. The proposed plan aims to finally reach an objective and fruitful agreement , via inviting established and young researchers from the United States, Brazil, China, Australia, and Europe who are working with different vaccine antigens, adjuvants, and approaches for immunization against S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum. It is hoped that the forum will end with a very few candidate antigens and a consensus approach regarding target immune responses, thus leading to encouraging the World Health Organization and other international foundations to sponsor the development and implementation of the urgently required, yet still elusive, vaccine for preventing and eliminating the transmission of schistosomiasis.

Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination

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ISBN: 9783039213573 9783039213580 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-358-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Current efforts to limit the ravages of schistosomiasis are pushing the world closer to eliminating a chronic infection that has been associated with human life in the tropics since time immemorial. This notwithstanding, the disease remains a scourge for large populations in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, and the main part of this book is made up by papers dealing with its current distribution, discussing ways and means to establish and implement improved control approaches. While chemotherapy limits the symptoms caused by schistosomiasis, the number of infected people will not decrease until the parasite's life cycle is interrupted. To that end, some papers focus on the intermediate snail host, which is notoriously difficult to control, while others discuss human hygiene and sanitation. The latter approach not only prevents infection through avoiding people being infected from the snail, but more importantly, also stops people infecting the snail by leaving contagious feces and urine in nature. With morbidity reduced by chemotherapy, the immediate target now is the interruption of transmission to be achieved by new tools, such as the novel chemotherapies, improved diagnostics (for humans, animals, and snails), and vaccines discussed in several of the papers. As made clear in this book, a complex infection requires new tools as well as work on many fronts, above all; however, a clear idea is needed as to how to skillfully combine the tools available and sustain implemented control activities.

Keywords

schistosomiasis --- Schistosoma --- vaccine --- zoonosis --- Asia --- Africa --- domestic animals --- buffalo --- cattle --- sheep --- goats --- Côte d’Ivoire --- coverage rate --- praziquantel --- preventive chemotherapy --- Schistosoma haematobium --- Schistosoma mansoni --- schistosomiasis --- diagnosis --- control and elimination --- DNA --- polymerase chain reaction --- schistosomiasis --- control --- elimination --- Africa --- operational research --- goals --- guidelines --- schistosomiasis --- vector control --- snail resistance --- gene drive --- transgenic snail --- schistosomiasis --- Kato-Katz --- POC-CCA --- young adults --- soil-transmitted helminths --- n/a --- Mayuge --- MDA coverage --- praziquantel --- S. mansoni --- systematic non-compliance --- treatment-opportunities --- Uganda --- climate change --- schistosomiasis --- distribution --- intermediate snail host --- transmission --- modelling --- schistosomiasis --- soil-transmitted-helminthiasis --- mapping --- preventive chemotherapy --- transmission control --- Gabon --- Central Africa --- schistosomiasis --- vaccine --- Sm14 --- FABP --- Schistosoma japonicum --- Oncomelania hupensis --- snail --- 28S ribosomal DNA --- PCR --- loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) --- pooled samples --- China --- schistosomiasis --- elimination --- praziquantel --- artemether --- combination therapy --- phylogeography --- Bulinus truncatus --- planorbidae --- Africa --- schistosomiasis --- neglected tropical diseases --- WIPO Re:Search --- BIO Ventures for Global Health --- cross-sector collaboration --- capacity-building --- drug discovery --- public-private partnerships --- GIS --- remote-sensing --- satellite --- international space station --- ECOSTRESS --- worldview --- spatio-temporal epidemiology --- climate change --- parasite --- schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis --- n/a --- schistosomiasis --- systems epidemiology --- systems thinking --- complexity --- neglected tropical diseases --- interdisciplinarity --- Schistosomiasis mansoni --- Caribbean --- elimination --- snail control --- Biomphalaria glabrata --- Schistosoma mekongi --- Neotricula aperta --- snail --- Cambodia --- Lao PDR --- elimination --- Asia --- control --- elimination --- epidemiology --- Schistosoma japonicum --- Schistosoma malayensis --- Schistosoma mekongi --- schistosomiasis --- Schistosomiasis --- Philippines --- schistosomiasis elimination --- S. japonicum zoonosis --- bovines --- schistosomiasis elimination --- snail control --- high-sensitivity diagnostics --- chemotherapy --- vaccine development --- health education --- sanitation

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