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Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Targets

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194681 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-468-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Abstract

Pancreatic Cancer has been and still is one of the deadliest types of human malignancies. The annual mortality rates almost equal incidence rates making this disease virtually universally fatal. The 5-year survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is a dismal 5% or less. Therapeutic strategies are extremely limited with gemcitabine extending the survival by a disappointing few weeks. The failure of several randomized clinical trials in the past decade investigating the therapeutic efficacy of different mono- and combination therapies reflects our limited knowledge of pancreatic cancer biology. In addition, biomarkers for early detection are sorely missing. Several pancreatic cancer risk factors have been identified. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms linking these risk factors to cancer development are poorly understood. Well known possible and probable risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer are age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Age is certainly of the most important risk factors as most cases of pancreatic cancer occur in the elderly population. Smoking ten cigarettes a day increases the risk by 2.6 times and smoking a pack per day increases it by 5 folds. Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by up to 13 times. Patients with hereditary forms of chronic pancreatitis have an even higher risk. Obesity, a growing global health problem, increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by about 1.5 fold. Type-2 diabetes mellitus is also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer by at least two-fold. The more recent the onset of diabetes, the stronger the correlation with pancreatic cancer is. In addition, heavy alcohol drinking, a family history of the disease, male gender and African American ethnicity are other risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by several genetic alterations including mutations in the Kras proto-oncogene and mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16. While Kras mutations are currently thought as early events present in a certain percentage of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), known precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, mutations in tumor suppressor genes, e.g. p53, seem to accumulate later during progression. In addition, several intracellular signaling pathways are amplified or enhanced, including the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling modules. Overall, these genetic alterations lead to enhanced and sustained proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasive and metastatic potential, and angiogenesis, all hallmarks of cancers. The scope of this Research Topic is to collect data and knowledge of how risk factors increase the risk of initiation/progression of pancreatic cancer. Of particular interest are potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and driving signaling pathways will ultimately allow the development of targeted interventions to disrupt the risk factor-induced cancer development. This Research Topic is interested in a broad range of risk factors, including genetic and environmental, and welcomes original papers, mini and full reviews, and hypothesis papers. Manuscripts that address the effect of combination of risk factors on pancreatic cancer development and progression are of great interest as well.

Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289271 / 9783039289288 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-928-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Natural products are increasingly attracting attention from both basic and applied science. Plant secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, are receiving interest from a wide range of researchers due to their biological activity. They are produced to protect plants from diseases and herbivores. Therefore, they reveal a toxic activity that affects organisms at various levels of biological organization. A growing amount of research is proving their antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and anticancer activities. That makes them applicable in various fields from medicine, to pharmacology, veterinary, and toxicology, to crop protection. This Special Issue of Toxins, “Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology"", collects 15 manuscripts describing the ecological, biological, pharmacological, and toxicological effects as well as structural and analytical aspects of plant alkaloids, their mode of action, and possible application in veterinary, medicine, and plant protection. These studies prove the potential for alkaloid application in various areas of science.

Keywords

Arecoline --- lung cancer cells --- mAchR3 --- EGFR --- SRC --- FAK --- dehydrocrenatidine --- neuropathic pain --- voltage-gated sodium channels --- Solanum melongena L. --- malonylated form --- glycoalkaloids --- secondary metabolites --- solasonine --- solamargine --- malonyl-solamargine --- acetylcholinesterase --- antioxidant --- Ovarian cancer --- Rutidea parviflora --- Palmatine --- Apoptosis --- chanoclavine --- toxicology --- subchronic feeding study --- acute toxicity --- endophyte --- Epichloë --- plant secondary metabolites --- glycoalkaloids --- insect heart --- beetles --- insect --- Tenebrio molitor --- Radix Aconiti Lateralis preparations --- short-term and long-term usage --- di-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- mono-ester diterpenoid alkaloids --- biodistribution --- ergot alkaloids --- livestock --- reproduction --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- Chelidonium majus --- cytotoxicity --- apoptosis --- sanguinarine --- berberine --- Chelidonium majus --- Berberis thunbergii --- leukemia --- anticancer --- natural products --- alkaloids --- plant secondary metabolites --- ?-carboline --- Staphylococcus aureus --- antimicrobial activity --- cytotoxicity --- acid-sensing ion channel subtype 1a --- bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid --- lindoldhamine --- nociception --- inflammation --- isoquinoline alkaloids --- HPLC-DAD --- cytotoxic activity --- Mahonia aquifolia --- Meconopsis cambrica --- Corydalis lutea --- Dicentra spectabilis --- Fumaria officinalis --- Macleaya cordata --- alkaloids --- natural sources --- anticancer --- antibacterial --- antiviral --- antifungal --- Curine --- alkaloid --- macrophage --- neutrophil --- lipopolysaccharide --- n/a

Treatment Strategies and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer

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ISBN: 9783039287581 / 9783039287598 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-759-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Treatment strategies for breast cancer are wide-ranging and often based on a multi-modality approach, depending on the stage and biology of the tumour and the acceptance and tolerance of the patient. They may include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy (endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy). Advances in technologies such as oncoplastic surgery, radiation planning and delivery, and genomics, and the development of novel systemic therapy agents alongside their evaluation in ongoing clinical trials continue to strive for improvements in outcomes. In this Special Issue, we publish a collection of studies looking at all forms of therapeutic strategies for early and advanced breast cancer, focusing on their outcomes, notably survival.

Keywords

advanced breast cancer --- metastatic --- chemotherapy --- antihormone therapy --- HER2 c-erbB2 --- HER2/neu --- trastuzumab --- pertuzumab --- T-DM1 --- lapatinib --- LKB1 --- Breast Cancer --- Older women --- Metformin --- Endocrine therapy --- breast cancer --- breast-conserving therapy --- mastectomy --- outcome --- comparative effectiveness --- metastatic breast cancer --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free DNA --- next-generation sequencing --- circulating tumor cells --- overdiagnosis --- mammography screening --- invasive breast cancer --- zero-inflated Poisson regression model --- breast cancer --- stage IV --- incidence --- tumor biology --- NCDB --- SEER --- Src kinase --- basal-like breast cancer --- cMet --- breast cancer --- radiotherapy --- lymph-node ratio --- disease-free survival --- physical activity --- breast cancer survivors --- physical function --- social well-being --- exercise characteristics --- APOBEC3B --- gene expression --- breast cancer --- ductal carcinoma in situ --- infiltrating breast cancer --- PIK3CA --- ERCC1 --- anthracycline resistance --- taxane sensitivity --- breast cancer --- colorectal cancer --- relative survival --- older patients --- geriatric oncology --- cancer treatment --- metastatic breast cancer --- lactate dehydrogenase --- serum biomarker --- LDH --- monitoring metastatic breast cancer --- palbociclib --- ribociclib --- abemaciclib --- fulvestrant --- aromatase inhibitors --- metastatic breast cancer --- contralateral prophylactic mastectomy --- contralateral breast cancer --- BRCA --- CHEK2 --- PALB2 --- ATM --- mutation carriers --- family history --- survival --- breast cancer --- young women --- histone deacetylase --- HDAC5 inhibitors --- LMK-235 --- breast cancer --- cyclin E --- older patients --- biomarker --- tumor biology --- prognosis --- survival --- n/a

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