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Évaluation des politiques publiques : trois illustrations dans le champ culturel

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ISBN: 9782111397996 Language: French
Publisher: Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-12 11:49:49
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L’évaluation des politiques publiques permet de mesurer l’effectivité de la mise en œuvre d’une mesure et son efficacité, évaluée selon les objectifs définis et justifiant l’intervention publique. Les méthodologies d’évaluation des politiques publiques peuvent être de différentes natures et les sciences économiques disposent d’outils permettant une évaluation d’ordre économétrique. Comparer directement les bénéficiaires et les non-bénéficiaires d’une mesure fournit une évaluation biaisée dans la mesure où ces deux groupes ont en général des caractéristiques différentes. Les méthodes économétriques ont en commun de résoudre ce problème en permettant de raisonner « toutes choses égales par ailleurs », c’est-à-dire d’isoler l’effet de la mesure afin d’en apprécier l’impact propre. Conformément au modèle causal de Rubin, l’évaluation consiste ainsi à comparer la situation que l’on peut observer avec celle que l’on observerait en l’absence d’intervention publique. Cette dernière, appelée situation contrefactuelle, est fondamentalement inobservable et tout l’enjeu des méthodes économétriques est d’en fournir une estimation la plus précise possible. Les trois outils les plus classiques sont présentés ici et illustrés par trois dispositifs d’intervention publique dans le champ de la culture : le label LIR, le dispositif École et cinéma et le crédit d’impôt audiovisuel. Dans le cas du label LIR, il est proposé d’évaluer si le label a permis à certaines librairies d’améliorer leur taux de rentabilité. Le label LIR permet d’exposer théoriquement la méthode des différences de différences ou estimateur en double différences, qui consiste à comparer avant et après la création du label les librairies labellisées et non labellisées pour évaluer son efficacité. Avec le dispositif École et cinéma, l’évaluateur se demande si le programme a permis de développer le goût des enfants pour le cinéma en analysant le taux de fréquentation annuelle des salles obscures des jeunes adultes. École et cinéma permet d’illustrer la méthode des variables instrumentales qui consiste à utiliser une source de variation exogène qui n’a pas d’effet direct sur le nombre d’entrées au cinéma des jeunes adultes mais qui explique la participation au programme de ces jeunes à l’école primaire. Enfin, la méthode de la régression avec discontinuité est proposée pour l’évaluation du crédit d’impôt audiovisuel afin d’analyser l’objectif de localisation française des dépenses de production en mesurant le nombre de jours de tournage sur le sol français des sociétés de production. Cette méthode consiste à profiter de l’existence d’un score de sélection des participants au programme, et de restreindre l’évaluation au voisinage du seuil donnant l’accès au crédit d’impôt afin de mimer une affectation aléatoire des individus dans le programme. Plutôt qu’une évaluation des dispositifs proposés ici à titre illustratif, cette publication vise à exposer des outils encore peu mobilisés pour l’évaluation de politiques culturelles.

Régulations du travail artistique

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782111398061 Language: French
Publisher: Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-12 11:49:50
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L’économie de la création repose sur le travail artistique et le potentiel de renouvellement créatif des auteurs, artistes, créateurs. Or les conditions dans lesquelles les filières culturelles valorisent le travail artistique se trouvent remises en cause par les mutations sociales, économiques et techniques. Au-delà de la reconfiguration des filières, ces évolutions viennent en particulier modifier les conditions dans lesquelles se rémunèrent les acteurs et s’articulent leurs prises de risques respectives. Cette nouvelle donne interroge le cadre juridique du travail de création constitué principalement par le droit social et le droit de la propriété littéraire et artistique. Le droit social, et particulièrement le droit du travail, ne semblent plus en capacité de jouer leur fonction par essence protectrice : l’équilibre recherché entre liberté du travail d’une part et sécurité d’autre part est ébranlé par la facilitation du recours au contrat à durée déterminée d’usage dans le droit positif ; par ailleurs l’instrumentalisation de l’assurance chômage ne règle pas de manière satisfaisante la couverture des périodes intertravail ; les disparités en termes de droits sociaux entre artistes salariés et artistes non salariés, pourtant en situation de dépendance économique, apparaissent de plus en plus injustifiées au regard des nouvelles conditions d’exercice professionnel ; la continuité des droits sociaux dans un système où se développe la pluriactivité n’est pas assurée. Du côté du droit de la propriété littéraire et artistique, la contractualisation dans un rapport de forces inégal entre les parties amène à s’interroger sur la manière dont les conditions de cession de droits patrimoniaux sont encadrées en ce qui concerne leur nature, leur étendue et leur durée ainsi que sur la rémunération d’exploitations secondaires de plus en plus nombreuses. Signe des limites de cet encadrement, les pratiques de forfaitisation de la rémunération se développent de manière importante, en particulier dans le cadre d’accords collectifs. Il s’ensuit des besoins renouvelés de régulation auxquels l’action collective comme l’action publique pourraient à l’avenir davantage contribuer. Il s’agit en effet de répondre de manière adéquate d’une part aux besoins de sécurisation des personnes tout au long de leurs parcours professionnels et d’autre part aux attentes d’une juste rémunération de leur contribution à la production artistique qui tienne compte de l’activité de création dans sa globalité (travail et œuvre).

Sustainability Science for Strong Sustainability

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ISBN: 9781783474554 9781783474561 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.4337/9781783474561 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Social Sciences --- Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Technology --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-01 13:23:40
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The dynamism of science has been catalytic for human prosperity in recent history. Conventional perspectives of the ivory tower model of modern science are, however, rivalled by the failure of humanity to tackle global crises of an economic, environmental and social nature. Operational solutions to these pressures have grown and exposed pitfalls of modern science to date. Sustainability Science for Strong Sustainability investigates core concepts, tools and institutional strategies of transdisciplinary sustainability science. Prominent research programs within heterodox economics, the environmental sciences and transition theory are explored through diverse case studies, revealing challenges and advancements for transdisciplinary research. In this book, the reform of modern science is facilitated by the consideration of action points to overcome the institutional barriers of putting sustainability science into practice. Researchers, students and policy practitioners will benefit from up to date knowledge on the practice of transdisciplinary research for sustainability.

Metal economy in host-microbe interactions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194971 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-497-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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From simple inorganic catalysts to vital biological cofactors, divalent transition metals are instrumental to electron transfers, catalysis and signaling. Their natural ability to bind, exchange and react with organic molecules including oxygen requires from living cells to regulate uptake with metabolic activities, sensing and chaperoning, distributing and storing, or excreting excess to prevent detrimental biochemical reactions. Since transition metal deficiency and overload both limit cell growth it is no surprise that the immune system evolved a dual strategy, of metal starvation or intoxication, to thwart microbial invasions. Like environmental metal availability determined biological use it also shaped host-microbe metal economy: Fe and Mn, available early in evolution and still required rather ubiquitously, are generally withheld by host in response to infection; Zn and Cu, which became bioavailable later, essentially to eukaryotic cells may be bombarded toward invaders. Successful microbial pathogens have evolved elaborate counter-measures to cope with host metal defenses. This research topic aims to review and discuss metal currencies in host-microbe interactions focusing on new findings about micro-organism pathogenesis determinants in the face of host innate strategies to interfere with microbial physiology.

Keywords

metal --- Virulence --- host --- pathogen --- transporter --- exporter --- regulation

Competition Law and Economic Regulation

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781776140909 9781776140916 978776142002 Year: Pages: 320 Language: English
Publisher: Wits University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-30 11:01:04
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Shaping markets through competition and economic regulation is at the heart of addressing the development challenges facing countries in southern Africa. The contributors to 'Competition Law And Economic Regulation: Addressing Market Power In Southern Africa' critically assess the efficacy of the competition and economic regulation frameworks, including the impact of a number of the regional competition authorities in a range of sectors throughout southern Africa. Featuring academics as well as practitioners in the field, the book addresses issues common to southern African countries, where markets are small and concentrated, with particularly high barriers to entry, and where the resources to enforce legislation against anti-competitive conduct are limited. What is needed, the contributors argue, is an understanding of competition and regional integration as part of an inclusive growth agenda for Africa. By examining competition and regulation in a single framework, and viewing this within the southern African experience, this volume adds new perspectives to the global competition literature. It is an essential reference tool and will be of great interest to policymakers and regulators, as well as the rapidly growing ecosystem of legal practitioners and economists engaged in the field.

Pathogenesis of Leptospira

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456499 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-649-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The present eBook, consisting of a compilation of research and review articles, focuses on the features and mechanisms adopted and explored by pathogenic leptospires to successfully establish infection in the host. Additionally, this eBook provides information to support future work focused on the development of new prevention approaches against this important yet neglected zoonotic disease.

Motherhood and the Law

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 101787520191201 9783863954253 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-15 11:21:17
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Who is a child’s legal mother? Must a child have exactly one mother, can it have two or three, or can it have two fathers, but no mother? Or has the concept of motherhood become obsolete and should we just talk of parenthood in a gender neutral way? Questions such as these would have appeared esoteric only a few decades ago, but as a result of new social developments (such as frequent family reconstitutions, gay and lesbian emancipation or surrogacy) and of technological innovations (such as egg and embryo donations) they have become issues in a vehement debate. The interdisciplinary contributions to this book focus on the legal definition of motherhood, on the way in which legal conceptions structure the social discourse on motherhood (and vice versa), and on the influence of legal rules on power relations between mothers, fathers, children and the state. Among the issues addressed are - the challenges to our understanding of the legal regulation of motherhood by developments in reproductive medicine; - the challenges to our understanding of the legal regulation of motherhood by parental constellations deviating from the mother-father-model (single motherhood by choice, same-gender parenthood, multiple parenthood); - the exercise of parental rights in case of parental separation and the impact of legal rules on the bargaining positions of mothers and fathers.

Minding the Gap: Appraising the promise and performance of regulatory reform in Australia

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781921313165 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459375 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
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‘Mind the Gap!’ is an almost iconic exhortation, originating in the London Underground, warning travellers to be careful when navigating the ‘gap’ between the platform and train. In this volume, Peter Carroll, Rex Deighton-Smith, Helen Silver and Chris Walker retrospectively assess the ‘gap’ — no less dynamic and perilous in a public policy context — between the promise and performance of successive waves of regulation in Australia since the 1980s. Regulatory bodies exist to exercise what might be broadly termed ‘control functions’ and, by nature, tend to be conservative both in their culture and operations. Institutional conservatism does not, of necessity, preclude the exercise of creativity and foresight, both of which are sorely required if government is to successfully meet the challenge of delivering more effective and less costly regulation. The business and policy environment is complex, the risks are great and the rewards of success and the costs of failure will be enormous. The true measure of success will be how effectively we are able to close the gap between promise and performance.

Consequences of the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780199641987 Year: Pages: 287 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199641987.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:47
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The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) is the most serious economic crisis since the Great Depression. Many books have explored its causes, but this book systematically explores its consequences. The focus is primarily on the policy and political consequences of the GFC. This book asks how governments responded to the challenge and what the political consequences of the combination of the GFC itself and policy responses to it have been. Based on workshops held in the United States and the United Kingdom, it brings together leading academics to consider the divergent ways in which particular countries have responded in different ways to the crisis, including China, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Part of what is happening is a structural shift in economic power from east to west, but China has its fragilities while Germany offers an example of a largely successful Western model. The book also assesses attempts to develop global economic governance and to reform financial regulation and looks critically at the role of credit rating agencies. Unlike earlier crises, no new paradigm has emerged to challenge existing ways of thinking, meaning that neoliberalism has emerged relatively unscathed. The crisis has lacked a coherent and innovative intellectual response and has been characterized by remarkable policy stability.

Transparent Lives: Surveillance in Canada

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ISBN: 9781927356777 9781927356784 9781927356791 Year: Pages: 251 DOI: 10.15215/aupress/9781927356777.01 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-04 17:04:53
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"Although most Canadians are familiar with surveillance cameras and airport security, relatively few are aware of the extent to which the potential for surveillance is now embedded in virtually every aspect of our lives. We cannot walk down a city street, register for a class, pay with a credit card, hop on an airplane, or make a telephone call without data being captured and processed. Where does such information go? Who makes use of it, and for what purpose? Is the loss of control over our personal information merely the price we pay for using social media and other forms of electronic communication, or should we be wary of systems that make us visible - and thus vulnerable - to others as never before? The work of a multidisciplinary research team, Transparent Lives explains why and how surveillance is expanding - mostly unchecked - into every facet of our lives. Through an investigation of the major ways in which both government and private sector organizations gather, monitor, analyze, and share information about ordinary citizens, the volume identifies nine key trends in the processing of personal data that together raise urgent questions of privacy and social justice. Intended not only to inform but to make a difference, the volume is deliberately aimed at a broad audience, including legislators and policymakers, journalists, civil liberties groups, educators, and, above all, the reading public."

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