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The Philosophy of Psychiatry and Biologism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193547 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-354-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Abstract

There has been an ongoing debate about the capabilities and limits of the bio-natural sciences as sources and the methodological measure in the philosophy of psychiatry for quite some time now. Still, many problems remain unsolved, at least partly for the following reasons: The opposing parties do not tend to speak with each other, exchange their arguments and try to increase mutual understanding. Rather, one gets the impression that they often remain in their “trenches”, busy with confirming each others' opinions and developing their positions in isolation. This leads to several shortcomings: (1) Good arguments and insights from both sides of the debate get less attention they deserve. (2) The further improvement of each position becomes harder without criticism, genuinely motivated by the opposing standpoint. (3) The debate is not going to stop, at least not in the way it would finish after a suggested solution finds broad support; (4) Related to this, insisting on the ultimate aptnessof one side is just plainly wrong in almost every case. Since undeniably, most philosophical positions usually have a grain of truth hidden in them. In sum, many controversies persist with regard to the appropriate methodological, epistemological, and even ontological level for psychiatric explanation and therapies. In a conference which took place in December last year, we tried to contribute to a better understanding about what really is at issue in the philosophy of psychiatry. We asked for a common basis for several sides, for points of divergence and for the practical impact of different solutions on everyday work in psychiatry. Since psychiatry as a whole is a subject that is to wide to be covered in a single meeting, we focused on the following four core topics: 1.Competing accounts of psychiatric biologism, reductionism, and physicalism. 2.Mental disease and brain disease in the light of current neuroscientific and epigenetic findings. 3.Normative suppositions for different accounts of mental disease. 4.Normative implications of different accounts of mental disease. These topics, which have been vigorously as well as fruitfully discussed at our conference, will (ideally) be, too, in the center of our contribution to Frontiers. More precisely, we think of arranging a “research topic” which assembles the issues of the conference. At this point, it seems promising to us to group three or four Target Articles (TA) and let them get criticized by a couple of commentaries from different angles to give the issue a much broader and detailed perspective.

What levels of explanation in the behavioural sciences?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195978 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-597-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Complex systems are to be seen as typically having multiple levels of organization. For instance, in the behavioural and cognitive sciences, there has been a long lasting trend, promoted by the seminal work of David Marr, putting focus on three distinct levels of analysis: the computational level, accounting for the What and Why issues, the algorithmic and the implementational levels specifying the How problem. However, the tremendous developments in neuroscience knowledge about processes at different scales of organization together with the complexity of today cognitive theories suggest that there will hardly be only three levels of explanation. Instead, there will be many different degrees of commitments corresponding to the different granularities - from high-level (behavioural) models to low-level (neural and molecular) models of the cognitive research program. For instance, Bayesian approaches, that are usually advocated for formalizing Marr's computational level and rational behaviour, have even been adopted to model synaptic plasticity and axon guidance by molecular gradients. As a result, we can consider the behavioural scientist as dealing with models at a multiplicity of levels. The purpose of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology is to promote an approach to the role of the levels and explanation and models which is of interest for cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, psychologists, behavioural scientists, and philosophers of science.

Contemporary Natural Philosophy and Philosophies - Part 1

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ISBN: 9783038978220 / 9783038978237 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-823-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Modern information communication technology eradicates barriers of geographic distances, making the world globally interdependent, but this spatial globalization has not eliminated cultural fragmentation. The Two Cultures of C.P. Snow (that of science–technology and that of humanities) are drifting apart even faster than before, and they themselves crumble into increasingly specialized domains. Disintegrated knowledge has become subservient to the competition in technological and economic race leading in the direction chosen not by the reason, intellect, and shared value-based judgement, but rather by the whims of autocratic leaders or fashion controlled by marketers for the purposes of political or economic dominance. If we want to restore the authority of our best available knowledge and democratic values in guiding humanity, first we have to reintegrate scattered domains of human knowledge and values and offer an evolving and diverse vision of common reality unified by sound methodology. This collection of articles responds to the call from the journal Philosophies to build a new, networked world of knowledge with domain specialists from different disciplines interacting and connecting with other knowledge-and-values-producing and knowledge-and-values-consuming communities in an inclusive, extended, contemporary natural–philosophic manner. In this process of synthesis, scientific and philosophical investigations enrich each other—with sciences informing philosophies about the best current knowledge of the world, both natural and human-made—while philosophies scrutinize the ontological, epistemological, and methodological foundations of sciences, providing scientists with questions and conceptual analyses. This is all directed at extending and deepening our existing comprehension of the world, including ourselves, both as humans and as societies, and humankind.

Keywords

n/a --- compositional hierarchy --- development --- dissipative structures --- final cause --- internalism --- Second Law of thermodynamics --- subsumptive hierarchy --- agonism --- apophasis --- autocatalysis --- centripetality --- contingency --- endogenous selection --- heterogeneity --- indeterminacy --- process --- mathematics --- physics --- philosophical foundations --- natural philosophy --- the logic of nature --- ontology --- epistemology --- in the name of nature --- philosophy of information --- natural philosophy --- metaphysics --- physics --- problem of induction --- physicalism --- theoretical unity --- philosophy of science --- scientific method --- scientific progress --- pessimistic induction --- awareness --- cognition --- computation --- cybernetics --- differentiation --- fitness --- holographic encoding --- memory --- perception --- quantum information --- signal transduction --- spatial representation --- thermodynamics --- unitarity --- Leibniz --- monad --- internal quantum state --- relational biology --- reflexive psychology --- self --- induction --- naturalism --- evidence and justification --- epistemic norms --- induction and concept formation --- induction and discovery of laws --- natural philosophy --- R.M. Unger --- L. Smolin --- Aristotle --- F.W.J. Schelling --- Naturphilosophie --- A.N. Whitehead --- Ivor Leclerc --- dialectics --- discourse --- discursive space --- information --- knowledge --- humanistic management --- language --- natural philosophy --- subjective experience --- process --- dual aspects --- consciousness --- information-theory --- theoretical biology --- 1st-person and 3rd-person perspectives --- hylomorphism --- mind --- form --- matter --- neurodynamics --- natural philosophy --- philosophy of science --- Jungian psychology --- depth psychology --- analytical psychology --- phenomenological psychology --- evolutionary psychology --- active imagination --- Aristotle’s four causes --- aesthetics in science --- philosophy as a way of life --- common good --- contradiction --- ethics --- information --- logic --- naturalization --- realism --- science --- synthesis --- natural philosophy --- philosophy of nature --- naturalism --- unity of knowledge --- qualitative ontology --- intentionality --- dispositions --- qualia --- abduction --- agent-based reasoning --- creativity --- eco-cognitive model --- eco-cognitive openness --- fallacies --- errors of reasoning --- third-way reasoning --- naturalization of logic --- causality --- embodiment --- measurement --- regulation --- retrocausality --- second-person description --- symmetry breaking --- temporality --- natural philosophy --- cosmology --- emptiness --- vacuum --- void --- dark energy --- space flight --- exoplanet --- big freeze --- big crunch --- everyday lifeworld --- digitization --- computability --- complexity --- reverse mathematics --- quantum computing --- real computing --- theory of everything --- acategoriality --- state-space approach --- mental representation --- dual-aspect monism --- exceptional experiences --- intentionality --- mind-matter relations --- category theory --- memory evolutive system --- emergence --- emergentist reductionism --- anticipation --- creativity --- info-computational model

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