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Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements: Current and Future Sources and Recycling

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ISBN: 9783038970170 9783038970187 Year: Pages: VIII, 164 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 13:38:18
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Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to our modern way of life, although potential primary and secondary sources of these elements and the economics of the REE sector remain somewhat poorly understood. This Special Issue focuses on furthering our understanding of the criticality and potential sources of rare earth elements as well as the economics of the REE sector. The papers in this Special Issue provide further insight into the full life cycle of REE, information that is vital to ensuring the existence of sustainable sources of these critical elements into the future.

Elektrischer Transport durch Nanokontakte von Selten-Erd-Metallen

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731502098 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: IV, 90 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000040632 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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In this book the electronic transport through rare-earth nanocontacts is investigated. These nanocontacts can be fabricated by the mechanically controlled break-junctions. The conductance through such a nanocontact is strongly influenced by the element's electronic structure. This is probably caused by the variable strength of localization of the 4f states.

Wine Traceability

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ISBN: 9783039217687 9783039217694 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-769-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Wine traceability is a central theme in the current world market where consumers are increasingly demanding the quality and origin of food and drink. The wine production chain and wine composition are generally controlled by different laws (International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV), European Union (EU), and national governments) and need specific documentation. Nevertheless, wine production is subject to fraud. Consequently, the improvement of the methods applied to verify the origin and quality of wines is very important to protect wine consumers and producers. In this book, eight different papers—six research papers and two reviews—address the topic from different points of view.

Recent Trends in Phosphate Mining and Beneficiation and Related Waste Management

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ISBN: 9783039281725 9783039281732 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-173-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The extraction of apatite minerals is becoming more and more crucial with the depletion of high-grade ores. At the same time, many streams of waste are continuously being produced by the phosphate industry, including calcareous and siliceous waste rocks, clayey sludge and phosphogypsum. These waste products are produced in huge volumes reaching a ratio of between 5 to 10 tons of waste per each ton of concentrated phosphate. The management of these waste products is becoming a real issue in terms of growing public awareness and environmental and financial aspects. In addition, phosphate ores are known to contain other critical raw materials (CRM) such as rare earth elements and uranium. The recovery of these vital elements from phosphate waste may help to develop the needs of the green energy of the future and contribute to the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In this Special Issue, insights related to the following aspects were studied: phosphate extraction and beneficiation, novel phosphate ores, the fine characterization of phosphate ores and waste, phosphoric acid production, critical raw material (CRM) recovery from phosphate ores and waste, reprocessing of phosphate wastes and finally the valorization and reuse of phosphate waste and phosphogypsum.

Advances in Hydrometallurgy

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ISBN: 9783039289394 / 9783039289400 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-940-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The development of new technologies and the increasing demand for mineral resources from emerging countries are responsible for significant tensions in the pricing of non-ferrous metals. Some metals have become strategic and critical because they are used in many technological applications such as flat panel TVs (indium), solar panel cells (indium), lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (lithium, cobalt), magnets (rare earth elements, such as neodymium and dysprosium), scintillators (rare earths), and aviation and medical applications (titanium); their availabilities remain limited. The secured supply of these metals is crucial to continue producing and exporting these technologies, and because the specific properties of these metals make them essential and difficult to substitute for a given industrial application. Hydrometallurgy have the advantages of being able to process low-grade ores, to allow better control of co-products, and have a lower environmental impact providing that the hydrometallurgical route is optimized and cheap. The need to develop sustainable, efficient, and cheap processes to extract metals from complex and poor polymetallic matrices is real. The aim of this book was to highlight recent advances related to hydrometallurgy to face new challenges in metal production.

Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

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ISBN: 9783039218462 9783039218479 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-847-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The book outlines recent advances in nuclear wasteform materials including glasses, ceramics and cements and spent nuclear fuel. It focuses on durability aspects and contains data on performance of nuclear wasteforms as well as expected behavior in a disposal environment.

Sustainable Utilization of Metals: Processing, Recovery and Recycling

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ISBN: 9783039288854 / 9783039288861 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-886-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The high demand for advanced metallic materials raises the need for an extensive recycling of metals and such a sustainable use of raw materials. ""Sustainable Utilization of Metals - Processing, Recovery and Recycling"" comprises the latest scientific achievements in efficient production of metals and such addresses sustainable resource use as part of the circular economy strategy. This policy drives the present contributions, aiming on the recirculation of EoL-streams such as Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), multi-metal alloys or composite materials back into metal production. This needs a holistic approach, resulting in the maximal avoidance of waste. Considering both aspects, circular economy and material design, recovery and use of minor metals play an essential role, since their importance for technological applications often goes along with a lack of supply on the world market. Additionally, their ignoble character and low concentration in recycling materials cause an insufficient recycling rate of these metals, awarding them the status of “critical metals”. In order to minimize losses and energy consumption, this issue explores concepts for the optimization concerning the interface between mechanical and thermal pre-treatment and metallurgical processes. Such new approaches in material design, structural engineering and substitution are provided in the chapters.

Keywords

laterites --- scandium --- leaching --- precipitation --- solvent extraction --- manganese --- Zinc --- electrolytic lodes and scrapings --- electrolytic manganese --- metallurgy --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- sustainable development --- recycling --- spent catalysts --- zinc --- copper --- Bayan Obo --- REE–Nb–Fe ore --- carbothermal reduction --- kinetics --- NMC batteries --- recycling --- leaching --- solvent extraction --- selective precipitation --- hydrometallurgy --- Bayer process --- trace elements --- vanadium --- gallium --- rare earth elements --- lanthanum --- yttrium --- scandium --- karst bauxite --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- indium --- silver --- jarosite --- recycling --- industrial residue --- process development --- selective extraction --- simultaneous recovery --- pyrometallurgy --- lifetime of steel --- steel scrap --- circulation --- industry sector --- dynamic material flow model --- recycling rate --- material flow analysis --- gold --- copper --- WPCBs --- leaching --- physical separation --- Tin recovery --- steelmaking dust --- zinc recycling --- alkaline leaching --- electric arc furnace --- Li-ion battery --- recycling --- pyrolysis --- microwave assisted pyrolysis --- battery pre-treatment --- super-gravity --- rheorefining --- aluminum alloy --- tramp element --- separation --- jarosite residue --- pyrometallurgy --- circular economy --- slag valorization --- metal recovery --- closed-loop circulation --- environmentally friendly process --- enrichment of Ti --- preparation for recovery --- reduction of Co --- precipitation --- thermal treatment --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- cold-bonded briquettes --- blast furnace --- desulfurization --- basic oxygen furnace --- dust --- sludge --- fines --- scandium --- anti-solvent crystallization --- solvent extraction --- precipitation --- ammonium scandium hexafluoride --- chemical equilibrium diagram --- aluminium purification --- iron removal --- intermetallic formation --- polythermal section --- cerium --- flotation --- glass polishing waste --- gravity separation --- leaching --- precipitation --- rare-earths --- recycling --- reuse --- solvent extraction --- neodymium --- dimethyl sulfoxide --- electrodeposition --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- ionic liquids --- scandium recovery --- titanium recovery --- NdFeB magnets --- rare earth elements --- recycling --- recycling potential --- neodymium --- dysprosium --- WPCB --- melting behavior --- flash smelting --- cementation --- copper removal --- cavitation --- pyrolysis --- smartphone --- displays --- halogenation --- indium --- volatilization --- thermodynamics --- recycling --- magnesium --- refining --- recycling --- ultra-high purity --- vacuum distillation --- condensation --- oxygen-depolarized cathodes --- silver leaching --- cryogenic pre-treatment --- negative activation energy --- polishing waste --- rare earths --- waste utilization --- characterization --- leaching --- n/a

Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210848 9783039210855 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-085-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The present Special Issue, “Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis”, aims to collect and to disseminate some of the most significant and recent contributions in the interdisciplinary area of innovative extraction procedures from complex matrices followed by validated analytical methods using hyphenated instrument configurations to support the optimization of the whole process and the scale-up possibility

Keywords

branched-chain keto acids --- serum --- muscle --- HPLC-Q-TOF/MS --- wood --- odor --- volatile organic compounds --- gas chromatography-olfactometry --- Wuyi Rock tea --- quality --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- UPLC-QqQ MS --- metabolite profiling --- metabolomics --- cluster analysis --- cultivars --- Lycium ruthenicun --- flavonoid --- ruthenicunoid A --- SIRT1 --- Asphodeline lutea --- HPLC-PDA --- heavy metals --- tyrosinase --- diabetes --- neurodegenerative disease --- color analysis --- pigments --- MAE --- HPLC-PDA --- SFE --- Thymus algeriensis --- rare earth elements --- flow injection --- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry --- seawater --- Hericium erinaceuns mycelium --- high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) --- genistein --- daidzein --- Fe3O4 --- modification --- alginate --- alkaloid --- ultrasound assisted extraction --- gelatin --- actinidin --- bovine hide --- physicochemical properties --- gel strength --- Semen Cuscutae --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry --- chlorogenic acids --- flavonoids --- steamed Panax notoginseng --- saponins --- extraction --- optimization --- antioxidant activity --- response surface methodology --- hematopoiesis --- microwave processing --- response surface methodology --- minor ginsenosides --- blood-enriching activity --- hemostatic activity --- ionic liquids --- sample preparation --- microextraction --- solid-phase microextraction --- dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- single-drop microextraction --- stir bar sorptive extraction --- stir cake sorptive extraction --- rosuvastatin --- metformin --- HILIC --- LC-MS --- therapeutic drug monitoring --- oolong tea --- Tieguanyin tea cultivar --- metabolite profiling --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- metabolomics --- Ajuga genevensis --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- dry extract --- fluid bed process --- microNIR --- in-line monitoring --- total polyphenolic content --- antioxidant --- flavonoids --- mouse melanoma B16 cells --- Panax notoginseng --- surfactant --- n/a --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry --- GHB --- GHB glucuronide --- nails --- endogenous values --- walnut septum --- polyphenols --- phytosterols --- HPLC-MS/MS --- Ultra-Turrax extraction --- biological activity --- antioxidant activity --- experimental design --- optimization --- phytochemicals

Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039282029 9783039282036 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-203-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The focus of this Special Issue is aimed at enhancing the discussion of Engineering Education, particularly related to technological and professional learning. In the 21st century, students face a challenging demand: they are expected to have the best scientific expertise, but also highly developed social skills and qualities like teamwork, creativity, communication, or leadership. Even though students and teachers are becoming more aware of this necessity, there is still a gap between academic life and the professional world. In this Special Edition Book, the reader can find works tackling interesting topics such as educational resources addressing students’ development of competencies, the importance of final year projects linked to professional environments, and multicultural or interdisciplinary challenges.

Keywords

cyclotron --- PET --- titanium-45 --- unconventional radionuclides --- cyclotron --- targetry --- thermal study --- recycling of [18O]-water --- enrichment grade --- fractional distillation --- azeotropic mixtures --- molecular sieve desiccant --- 165Er --- 52Mn --- irradiation --- separation --- resin --- radiometals --- heavy Rare Earth Elements (hREE) --- liquid targets --- medical cyclotron --- radiometals --- gallium-68 --- copper-64 --- copper-61 --- purification --- disposable kit --- radiopharmaceuticals --- radionuclide production --- target stations --- targetry --- 70 MeV cyclotron --- beam energy --- ion accelerator --- medical cyclotron --- ion source --- filament --- cyclotron --- medical isotopes --- SPECT --- cyclotron --- medical radioisotope production --- radioactive impurities --- cross-section --- stacked-foils --- gamma spectroscopy --- thick target yield --- Radionuclide Yield Calculator --- cyclotron target --- carbon-11 --- recoil escape --- boron nitride nanotubes --- BNNTs --- cyclotrons --- radionuclide production --- solid, liquid and gas targets --- PET --- medical isotopes --- Ga-68 --- solid target --- radioisotopes --- medical radioisotopes --- radioisotope targetry --- solid radioisotope targets --- radioisotope target processing --- medical cyclotrons --- cyclotron --- targetry --- solid target --- metal 3D-printing --- target temperature --- radiometals --- radionuclides --- radioisotopes --- medical radioisotopes --- radioisotope targetry --- solid radioisotope targets --- radioisotope target processing --- medical cyclotrons --- PET --- medical isotopes --- solid target system --- radioisotope production --- Molybdenum-100 --- cyclotron --- molybdenum material recovery --- actinium-225 --- thorium --- spallation --- proton target --- ANSYS --- targeted alpha therapy --- cyclotron --- stack-foil --- monitor reaction --- cyclotron solid target --- radioisotope production --- magnetron sputtering --- thick film deposition --- cyclotron --- powder target --- thermal study --- vortex target --- Gallium-68 --- Technetium-99m --- medical Sc radioisotopes --- radioisotope production --- thick target yield measurements --- cross-section reconstruction --- numerical analysis --- cyclotrons --- targets --- target chemistry --- radioisotopes --- theranostics

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280766 9783039280773 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-077-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Gems have been used in the manufacture of jewellery and as ornaments since antiquity. Considering gems, recent statistics have shown that about 15 billion Euros are annually at stake. Nowadays, gemmology, i.e., the study of gem materials, is one of the most expanding fields in the earth sciences, positioned between academia and industry. As an applied science, in gemmology, the instruments used should be non- or microdestructive, and their cost should be reasonable both in terms of equipment and time consumption. Gemmology can also be used contribute to the development of pure science and in some cases, destructive techniques may have to be used. Taking into account the fact that gems are albeit rarely available for scientific research, this compilation of 20 articles by around 100 researchers from over 30 different institutions situated in 20 countries from around the globe, presented in the Special Issue entitled “Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems”, offers very good examples on the application of various methods for their study which will hopefully contribute to our better understanding of gem formation in general and will enhance scientific debates attracting more scientists from various disciplines to get involved in this field.

Keywords

danburite --- trace elements --- REE --- femtosecond LA-ICP-MS --- CHNS elemental analyzer --- pegmatites --- skarn --- gemstones --- placer --- heavy and light minerals --- landforms --- climate --- geodynamic setting --- green quartz --- prase --- amethyst --- color --- amphibole --- actinolite --- skarn --- Serifos --- Greece --- zircon --- xenocryst --- alkali basalt --- Ratanakiri Volcanic Province --- trace elements --- O-isotopes and Hf-isotopes --- U-Pb --- (U-Th)/He --- granitic pegmatite --- gem-quality tourmaline --- Adamello Massif --- Central Alps --- Italy --- ruby --- Mogok --- Mong Hsu --- New South Wales --- trace elements --- LA-ICP-MS analysis --- inclusions --- U–Pb age-dating --- genetic diversity --- geographic typing --- corundum --- blue sapphire --- meta-ultramafic rocks --- LA-ICP-MS --- Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopy --- Ilmenogorsky complex --- Ural Mountains --- metasomatism --- corundum megacrysts --- ruby --- sapphire --- plumasite --- metamorphic-metasomatic origin --- Greece --- zircon megacrysts --- placer deposits --- rare earth elements (REE) --- carbonatite-dominant melts --- Central Highlands --- Vietnam --- hyperspectral photoluminescence imaging --- LA-ICP-MS --- rubies --- corundum --- in-situ oxygen isotopes --- Paranesti Greece --- Nestos Shear Zone --- Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- emerald deposits --- classification --- typology --- metamorphism --- magmatism --- sedimentary --- alkaline metasomatism --- fluids --- stable and radiogenic isotopes --- genetic models --- exploration --- andradite --- demantoid --- gemstone --- Raman spectroscopy --- UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy --- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy --- gem-quality --- garnet --- gem-bearing pegmatite --- fluid inclusions --- P-T-X equilibria --- spodumene --- Ar/Ar dating --- blue sapphire --- anorthosites --- kyshtymites --- sapphire geochemistry --- Ilmenogorsky-Vishnevogorsky complex --- in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating --- kyanite --- Mn-rich silicates --- Rhodope --- Thassos --- amphibolite facies --- metasomatism --- opal --- hyalite --- silica --- X-ray diffraction --- Raman --- Infrared --- 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance --- SEM --- provenance --- pearls --- freshwater --- saltwater --- LA-ICP-MS --- X-ray luminescence --- sapphires --- corundum --- in situ oxygen isotopes --- Orosmayo Argentina --- lamprophyre --- secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- carbonatite --- gemstones --- corundum --- beryl --- jadeitite --- garnet --- quartz varieties --- Greece --- emeralds --- LA-ICP-MS --- UV-Vis-NIR --- FTIR --- Raman --- PL --- n/a

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