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Drying, film formation and open time of aqueous polymer dispersions : an investigation of different aspects by rheometry and inverse-micro-raman-spectroscopy (IMRS)

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ISBN: 9783866442849 Year: Pages: X, 221 S DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000009284 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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The application properties and the final coating properties of waterborne polymer dispersions are poor compared to the ones of polymer solutions with organic solvents. This is expressed by a short open time and by inhomogeneities and defects that are visible in the final dry coating.Aim of this work is an investigation and discussion of the different aspects that are responsible for the poor application and coating properties of aqueous latex dispersions by experiments and model calculations.

Biomass Modification, Characterization and Process Monitoring Analytics to Support Biofuel and Biomaterial Production

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198672 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-867-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable fuels and other commodities has provided an appealing alternative towards supplanting global dependence on fossil fuels. The suitability of multitudes of plants for deconstruction to useful precursor molecules and products is currently being evaluated. These studies have probed a variety of phenotypic traits, including cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, lignin, and lignin monomer composition, glucose and xylose production following enzymatic hydrolysis, and an assessment of lignin-carbohydrate and lignin-lignin linkages, to name a few. These quintessential traits can provide an assessment of biomass recalcitrance, enabling researchers to devise appropriate deconstruction strategies. Plants with high polysaccharide and lower lignin contents have been shown to breakdown to monomeric sugars more readily. Not all plants contain ideal proportions of the various cell wall constituents, however. The capabilities of biotechnology can alleviate this conundrum by tailoring the chemical composition of plants to be more favorable for conversion to sugars, fuels, etc. Increases in the total biomass yield, cellulose content, or conversion efficiency through, for example, a reduction in lignin content, are pathways being evaluated to genetically improve plants for use in manufacturing biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Although plants have been previously domesticated for food and fiber production, the collection of phenotypic traits prerequisite for biofuel production may necessitate new genetic breeding schemes. Given the plethora of potential plants available for exploration, rapid analytical methods are needed to more efficiently screen through the bulk of samples to hone in on which feedstocks contain the desired chemistry for subsequent conversion to valuable, renewable commodities. The standard methods for analyzing biomass and related intermediates and finished products are laborious, potentially toxic, and/or destructive. They may also necessitate a complex data analysis, significantly increasing the experimental time and add unwanted delays in process monitoring, where delays can incur in significant costs. Advances in thermochemical and spectroscopic techniques have enabled the screening of thousands of plants for different phenotypes, such as cell-wall cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and lignin composition, lignin monomer composition, or monomeric sugar release. Some instrumental methods have been coupled with multivariate analysis, providing elegant chemometric predictive models enabling the accelerated identification of potential feedstocks. In addition to the use of high-throughput analytical methods for the characterization of feedstocks based on phenotypic metrics, rapid instrumental techniques have been developed for the real-time monitoring of diverse processes, such as the efficacy of a specific pretreatment strategy, or the formation of end products, such as biofuels and biomaterials. Real-time process monitoring techniques are needed for all stages of the feedstocks-to-biofuels conversion process in order to maximize efficiency and lower costs by monitoring and optimizing performance. These approaches allow researchers to adjust experimental conditions during, rather than at the conclusion, of a process, thereby decreasing overhead expenses. This Frontiers Research Topic explores options for the modification of biomass composition and the conversion of these feedstocks into to biofuels or biomaterials and the related innovations in methods for the analysis of the composition of plant biomass, and advances in assessing up- and downstream processes in real-time. Finally, a review of the computational models available for techno-economic modeling and lifecycle analysis will be presented.

Organic Semiconductor Lasers and Tailored Nanostructures for Raman Spectroscopy

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ISBN: 9783731503705 Year: Pages: VIII, 228 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000046874 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57

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This work presents the application of organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser as free-space excitation source in Raman spectroscopy. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect is exploited to improve the detection sensitivity. The SERS conditionis achiedved by using substrates consisting of gold-coated polymeric nanopillar arrays. The organic-laser-excited SERS measurements are applied to verify the concentration variation of biomolecule adenosine in aqueous solutions.

New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures

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ISBN: 9783038976882 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-689-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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One last comment concerns the fundamental contributions of Fourier analysis to quantum physics: Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

Keywords

ariegilatite --- nabimusaite group --- new mineral --- crystal structure --- intercalated hexagonal antiperovskite --- CO3-group --- Raman --- pyrometamorphic rocks --- Hatrurim Complex --- tiberiobardiite --- chalcophyllite group --- copper --- silicate --- sulfate --- Cretaio --- Tuscany --- Italy --- oyonite --- lillianite homologous series --- sulfosalt --- copper --- antimony --- arsenic --- Oyon district --- Lima department --- Peru --- fiemmeite --- new oxalate mineral --- Val di Fiemme --- Trentino --- Italy --- sharyginite --- new mineral --- crystal structure --- Raman spectroscopy --- Bellerberg volcano --- Germany --- kurchatovite --- clinokurchatovite --- crystal structure --- borate --- polymorphism --- polytypism --- structural complexity --- structural combinatorics --- configurational entropy --- least-action principle --- barioferrite --- crystal structure --- single-crystal investigation --- Raman --- Hatrurim Complex --- Rusinovite --- Raman spectroscopy --- pyrometamorphism --- stacking faults --- Shadil-Khokh volcano --- Bellerberg volcano --- aurihydrargyrumite --- Au6Hg5 phase --- gold --- placer --- self-electrorefining --- Ehime --- Japan --- cerromojonite --- selenium --- copper --- lead --- mercury --- bismuth --- sou?ekite --- bournonite group --- El Dragón --- Bolivia --- nöggerathite-(Ce) --- new mineral --- zirconolite --- laachite --- sanidinite --- crystal structure --- alkaline volcanic rock --- Laacher See --- Eifel --- parafiniukite --- apatite supergroup --- hedyphane group --- manganese --- calcium --- phosphorus --- Szklary pegmatite --- Lower Silesia --- Poland --- thermaerogenite --- cuprospinel --- gahnite --- magnesioferrite --- CuAl2O4 --- CuFe2O4 --- copper oxide --- new mineral --- spinel supergroup --- fumarole sublimate --- Tolbachik volcano --- Kamchatka --- verneite --- new mineral --- crystal structure --- Hekla --- Vesuvius --- Eldfell --- aluminofluoride

Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039284542 9783039284559 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-455-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The Special Issue “Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films” highlights the recent progress in thin film synthesis/modification and characterization. New methods are reviewed for the synthesis and/or modification of thin films based on laser, magnetron, chemical, and other techniques. The obtained thin nanostructures are characterized by complex and complementary techniques. We think that most of proposed methods can be directly applied in production, but some others still need further elaboration for long-term prospective applications in lasers, optics, materials, electronics, informatics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, and probably many other domains. The Guest Editor and the MDPI staff are therefore pleased to offer this Special Issue to interested readers, including graduate and PhD students as well as postdoctoral researchers, but also to the entire community interested in the field of nanomaterials. We share the conviction that this can serve as a useful tool for updating the literature, but also to aid in the conception of new production and/or research programs. There is plenty of room for further dedicated R&D advances based on new instruments and materials under development.

Keywords

AlGaN --- nanopatterned sapphire substrate --- hydride vapor phase epitaxy --- stress --- transmission electron microscopy --- copper nanowires --- CuNWs --- degradation --- encapsulation --- PDMS --- PMMA --- solution-based --- transparent electrode --- photonic crystal fiber --- demultiplexer --- dense wavelength division multiplexing --- lithium niobate --- waveguide --- photonic integrated circuit --- propagation loss --- optical lithography --- chemo-mechanical polishing --- gold thin film --- nonlinear absorption --- nonlinear refraction --- transient absorption --- nanoparticles --- high-order harmonics --- electroluminescence --- nanolaminate --- Al2O3 --- Tm2O3 --- atomic layer deposition --- germanium --- DLC --- doped biomaterials --- pulsed laser deposition --- reactive oxygen species --- apoptosis --- cytotoxicity --- titanium film --- interlayer --- cohesion --- residual stress --- nano-indenter --- nanocrystal --- CdTe --- Cu-doped --- ZnTe --- solar cells --- solution processed --- pulsed laser deposition --- chalcogenide thin films --- Raman spectroscopy --- spectroscopic ellipsometry --- noble metal nanoparticles --- pulsed laser ablation --- surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy --- antiepileptic drugs --- Zn2+ substituted Coll-CaPs biomimetic layers --- MAPLE --- spin coating --- dye-sensitized solar cells --- photovoltaic conversion efficiency --- TiO2 thin films --- pulsed laser deposition --- DLC bio-functionality --- silicon doping --- diffusion barrier --- biocompatibility --- proliferation improvement --- endothelial cells --- ZnO nanofilms --- SHG --- Ga doping --- polarization angle --- Cu2MgxZn1?xSnS4 --- thin films --- photoelectric performance --- sol–gel --- sulfuration treatment --- solar cell --- nanomaterial --- zinc oxide --- barium titanate --- composite --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- elastic modulus --- toughness --- flexural rigidity --- radiopacity --- piezoelectricity --- laser surface texturing --- laser-induced periodic surface structures --- LIPSS --- silicon --- PTFE --- friction --- n/a

Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

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ISBN: 9783038978961 9783038978978 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-897-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the crust of the Earth during processes such as metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. In recent years focus has been concentrated on mineral surface reactions made possible through the development of advanced analytical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), advanced electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), phase shift interferometry, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and advanced synchrotron-based applications, to enable mineral surfaces to be imaged and analyzed at the nanoscale. Experiments are increasingly complemented by molecular simulations to confirm or predict the results of these studies. This has enabled new and exciting possibilities to elucidate the mechanisms that govern mineral–fluid reactions. In this Special Issue, “Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale”, we present 12 contributions that highlight the role and importance of mineral surfaces in varying fields of research.

Plasmonics and its Applications

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ISBN: 9783038979142 9783038979159 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-915-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Plasmonics is a rapidly developing field that combines fundamental research and applications ranging from areas such as physics to engineering, chemistry, biology, medicine, food sciences, and the environmental sciences. Plasmonics appeared in the 1950s with the discovery of surface plasmon polaritons. Plasmonics then went through a novel propulsion in the mid-1970s, when surface-enhanced Raman scattering was discovered. Nevertheless, it is in this last decade that a very significant explosion of plasmonics and its applications has occurred. Thus, this book provides a snapshot of the current advances in these various areas of plasmonics and its applications, such as engineering, sensing, surface-enhanced fluorescence, catalysis, and photovoltaic devices.

Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039217861 9783039217878 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-787-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They play a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is usually achieved with chemical and physical methods needing the use of extremely toxic chemicals or high-energy inputs. To move towards more eco-friendly processes, researchers have recently focused on so-called “green synthesis”, where microbial, animal-, and plant-borne compounds can be used as cheap reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. Green synthesis routes are cheap, environmentally sustainable, and can lead to the fabrication of nano-objects with controlled sizes and shapes—two key features determining their bioactivity.

Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial-Based Films: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039219025 9783039219032 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-903-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is dedicated to highlighting some relevant advances in the field of thin films and coatings based on two-dimensional crystals and layered nanomaterials. Due to their layered structure, graphene and a variety of new 2D inorganic nanosystems, called “graphene analogues”, have all attracted tremendous interest due to their unprecedented properties/superior performance, and may find applications in many fields from electronics to biotechnology. These two-dimensional systems are ultrathin and, hence, tend to be flexible, also presenting distinctive and nearly intrinsic characteristics, including electronic, magnetic, optical, thermal conductivity, and superconducting properties. Furthermore, the combination of different structures and synergetic effects may open new and unprecedented perspectives, making these ideal advanced materials for multifunctional assembled systems. As far as the field of coatings is concerned, new layered nanostructures may offer unique and multifunctional properties, including gas barrier, lubricant, conductive, magnetic, photoactive, self-cleaning, and/or antimicrobial surfaces. This book contains new findings on the synthesis and perspectives of multifunctional films that are at the forefront of the science and coating technologies.

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